Rubber – a loosely cross-linked network of polymer chains that when strained to high levels will forcibly return to at or near it original dimensions. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of rubber’s engineering characteristics. This class will introduce the various sources of rubber, both natural and synthetic. The class will contrast the differences between rubber and plastics; including thermoplastic rubber. Detailed discussions on how to select the correct rubber polymer for the application, highlighting the pros and cons of each major rubber type.
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes.
Through the substitution of some aircraft structural components with power storage and generation devices that possess adequate structural strength and stiffness, flight endurance time and performance of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) may be increased by reducing the parasitic weight penalties of the power systems. This innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’ along with energy generation devices such as structural solar cells, thermo-electric generators, and vibration induced power generators are integral to creating a flying structure that will be more efficient and more useful to the electric powered commercial and hobby markets. This paper discusses plans and the progress toward achieving potential endurance and efficiency increases in unmanned aerial vehicles through laboratory and eventual model flight experiments of novel structural designs for graphene super-capacitors, solar cells, and other power generation devices.
The SAE G-27 committee was tasked by ICAO to develop a performance-based packaging standard for lithium batteries transported as cargo on aircraft. The standard details test criteria to qualify packages of lithium batteries & cells for transportation as cargo on-board passenger aircraft. Lithium batteries and cells have been prohibited from shipment as cargo on passenger aircraft since 2016. This paper summarizes the results of the tests conducted by Transport Canada and National Research Council Canada to support the development of this standard with evidence-based recommendations. It includes a description of the test specimens, the test set up, instrumentation used, and test procedures following the standard as drafted to date. The study considered several lithium-ion battery and cell chemistries that were tested under various proposed testing scenarios in the draft standard.
In large scale industries attempts are continuously being made to automate assembly processes to not only increase productivity but also alleviate non-ergonomic tasks. However this is not always technologically possible due to specific joining challenges and the high number of special-purpose parts. For the riveting process, for example, semi-automated approaches represent an alternative to optimizing aircraft assembly and to reduce the exposure of workers to non-ergonomic conditions entailed by performing repetitive tasks. In (Mueller, Rainer, et al. 2019) a semi-automated solution is proposed for the riveting process of assembling the section barrel of the aft section to its pressure bulkhead. The method introduced a dynamic task sharing strategy between human and robot that implements interaction possibilities to establish a communication between a human and a robot in Human-Robot-collaboration fashion.
Dynamical Energy Analysis (DEA) has recently been introduced as a mesh-based high frequency method modelling structure borne sound for complex built-up structures. Using DEA, the structure-borne sound of an assembled agricultural tractor was calculated and good agreement between measurement and DEA calculations has been shown. However, it is still difficult to model a solid structure as currently DEA is based on wave-transmission calculations through plates and plate-to-plate junctions. Additionally, it is often difficult to generate accurate FE meshes of assembled complex structures because of welds, bolts, and rubber brushes between components. In this paper, we propose a novel method to generate DEA elements based on measurement data in order to model solid parts of a complex structures. The method of Advanced Transfer Path Analysis (ATPA) is employed to extract energy-transmission characteristics of a structure.
Porous materials, which have large surface areas, have been used for heat storage. However, porous Si-SiC material, as heat storage medium to be applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine has not been investigated extensively. In this study, porous Si-SiC material was used in the upstream of the turbine as heat storage medium and a model was thereby developed for further study. Substrate surface area and substrate volume of Si-SiC were calculated for structure model calibration. Following these calculations and test results, the pressure loss and thermal model were validated. Results show that the weaken exhaust gas pulsation amplitude by porous Si-SiC leads to better turbine performance and BSFC in steady engine condition for a turbocharged gasoline engine. In addition, its transient operation response needs to be improved under transient engine conditions. Hence the possibility of improving the transient response is investigated with characteristics of porous Si-SiC material.
Silicone-based RTV sealants see widespread use in the automotive industry. In the uncured state, RTV silicone has the consistency of thick toothpaste and can be easily applied to form an effective seal. However, a significant amount of anecdotal evidence suggests issues exist with RTV’s ability to maintain a satisfactory seal in some long-term engine sealing applications. ASTM D7216 is used to evaluate the effects of different oil blends on a set of standard molded reference samples after submersion in an elevated temperature oil bath. The evaluated material properties are hardness, percent volume change, tensile strength, and ultimate elongation. A library of such results is readily available through Savant Laboratories of Midland, Michigan. Given RTV’s widespread use, surprisingly no such library of information exists concerning an engine oil’s effects on different RTVs.
This specification covers a petroleum-based reference oil. This fluid has been typically used as a reference oil to evaluate the ability of elastomeric compounds to conform to specified requirements after immersion at a specified time and temperature as required by the material.
This SAE standard specifies operating procedure for the exposure of automotive interior trim materials in an outdoor behind-glass apparatus in which the temperature is controlled in a 24 hour cycle. The humidity is controlled during the dark (night) portion of the cycle.
This SAE Standard includes complete general and dimensional specifications for those types of filler and drain plugs (shown in Figures 1 to 7 and Tables 1 to 3) having straight threads which are commonly used with gaskets or seals in automotive and related industrial applications.
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is concerned only with aspects directly relating to available accuracy. While well-designed photoelectric, inductive or capacitive readers and pressure regulators, and other accessories are highly desirable for convenience and production rate, they are considered to be outside the scope of this AIR. This AIR is intended to define three classes of barometers, working, reference and transfer and some aspects of their use so that altimeters and air data transducers calibrated aginst working barometers will be comparable. An accuracy of ±0.003 inch (or ±0.076 mm) Hg should be approachable with working barometers meeting the recommendations in this AIR.
This Aerospace Information Report, (AIR) is intended to provide the sponsors of Aerospace Standards, (AS), with standard wording, formatting, and minimum environment and design requirements for use in the preparation of their document. The individual shall use only those parts of this AIR which apply to their particular document. The individual sponsor may expand the standard wording, especially under Sections 4, 5, and 6 as required. The paragraphs of this AIR shall be used verbatim wherever possible. Unless otherwise directed by SAE, cross referenced documents shall be called out by specific revision letter, e.g. "shall be in accordance with AS XXXXB." In addition, all non-SAE documents called out shall include the document title when initially identified. However, every effort shall be made to keep cross-referencing to an absolute minimum.