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Technical Paper

A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2572
A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle Research Objective This paper presents a hybrid composite brake disc with reduced Un Sprung Weight clearing thermal and structural analysis in a formula vehicle.Main purpose of this study is to analyse thermomechanical behaviour of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. Methodology In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodelled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work.
Technical Paper

FABRICATION AND WEAR CHARACTERISTICS BASALT FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE MATRIX COMPOSITES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2570
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm used in heavy commercial vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2550
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm.
Technical Paper

C123 Methodology for concept design of the Chassis Frame

2019-11-21
2019-28-2534
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven concept process, C123 for developing the chassis frame of the SUV along with Multidisciplinary optimisation tool. C123 process is useful for strategic & systematic usage of optimisation to generate design alternatives, trade-off information, best balanced designs, design sensitivities, to actively support the concept development process on daily basis. Methodology C123 is used for developing initial concept design of the chassis frame of the SUV. C123 process is independent of vehicle architectures, manufacture process (e.g. extrusions, sheet metal) & material selection (e.g. metals, composites, mixed etc.) and platform sharing strategy. C1 process is used for identification of optimum Structural Layout, C2 is for rapid optimum Sizing of idealized Sections, C3 is used for detailed optimum Sizing of Manufacturable Sections. Automatic process is used for handling pre and post processing process very efficiently.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

INTRODUCTION OF GREEN LED LIGHT FOR SAFETY, POLLUTION CONTROL, FUEL SAVING AND MOTION INDICATOR IN AUTOMOBILES.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2455
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective - This invention relates to introduction of GREEN LED LIGHT for safety, fuel saving, pollution control and motion indicator in automobiles. At present, every vehicle is provided with red light, orange light and white light at the rear end of the vehicle. Now, there is no such light which can tell about the motion of the vehicle, whether the vehicle's engine is using its power to move or going on in rolling condition. According to the present invention a GREEN LED LIGHT is introduced at the rear end f the vehicle. The green led light is on when the vehicle is using its engine's power to move. At present, when we drive behind the vehicle we continuously make assumption about the motion of the vehicle in front of us. This GREEN LED LIGHT will give exact information about the motion of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of De-Lavel Restrictor with Throttle Body for Formula Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0009
The restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As an constrain of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venture nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. A de lavel nozzle is a tube pinched in the middle, making an asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a higher supersonic speed in the axial direction. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degrees) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degrees) are taken into consideration.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study on Electro Thermally Actuated Novel Compliant Microgripper

2019-10-11
2019-28-0032
At Micron-level actuation, thermal gripper provides greater forces when compared with electrostatic mode of actuation. To accomplish larger translations at minimal voltages, the Electro thermal actuation is applied. The mechanism of selective non-uniform Joule heating; which helps in thermal expansion of the design owing to restraints. The gripper proposed in this work is analyzed using FEA and is fabricated using Aluminum and stainless steel to achieve quicker response. The in-plane displacement, strain, stress, current density and temperature have been predicted for different magnitudes of current-voltage combination that the gripper sustains. It was found that, micro gripper performs well under 1v giving 60 μm displacement. Parametric sweep was carried out using commercially available FEA software package; COMSOL Multiphysics, to study and asses the outcome of various parameters on the performance of the gripper.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Characteristics on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA2014/AA6061 Alloy for Automobile Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0063
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a widely used solid state welding process in which its heats metal to the below recrystallization temperature due to frictional force. FSW mostly avoids welding defects like hot cracking and porosity which are mainly occur in conventional welding techniques. In this process the combination of frictional force and the mechanical work provide heating the base metal to get defect free weld joints. Aluminium Alloys 2014 and 6061 are generally used in a wide range of automobile applications like Engine valves and tie rod, shipbuilding, and aerospace due to their high corrosion resistance, lightweight, and good mechanical properties. In the present work, aluminium alloys of AA6061 and AA2014 were effectively welded by friction stir welding technique. The tool rotational speed, travel speed, and tool profile are the important parameters in FSW process. High Speed Steel (HSS) tool with Hexagonal profile is used for this joining.
Technical Paper

Advances in Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Alloys

2019-10-11
2019-28-0056
As a fusion welding process, Laser welding has proven to be the most promising method for joining of different materials whether it can be either a similar or dissimilar material category.
Technical Paper

Multi Characteristics Optimization of Treated Drill Tool in Drilling Operation Key Process Parameter Using TOPSIS and ANOVA Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0055
To survive in the present global competitive world, the manufacturing sectors have been making use of various tools to achieve the high quality products at a comparatively cheaper price. Appropriate cutting set up must be used to further better the machinability of a work piece material. A longer life of the tools and equipment’s are important factors in any industry. Since the inception of the machine tool industry, cutting tool life and tool wear remain a subject of deep interest to study its failure and improvement. The present study finds out the optimum cutting results in drilling of AM60 magnesium alloy using different cryogenically treated cutting inserts. The Utility concept coupled with Taguchi with Multi response approach (TOPSIS) was employed. According to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, the feed was the major dominating factor followed by the cutting speed.
Technical Paper

Machinability and Parametric Optimization of Inconel 600 Using Taguchi-Desirability Analysis under Dry Environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion-resistant, excellent mechanical properties, and good creep rupture strength at a higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in heat treating, phenol condensers, chemical and food processing, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness, and tool wear is carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Metallurgical Analysis of HSLA Steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Different Shielding Gases

2019-10-11
2019-28-0069
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gases in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. DMR 249A [HSLA] plates were welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140 degree Celsius and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. A detailed study has been carried out to analyze the elements using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The properties of the high speed low alloy steel carried out reveals a better mechanical properties suitable in naval applications.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Al 7075 Composite Reinforced with TiC and Al2O3 Particles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0094
Various research regarding new types of fabrication and modifications of Aluminium alloy to improve the existing properties are going on. The wide range application of aluminium alloy is in aerospace and Automobile Industries. The demand for this material improved by mechanical properties with little to zero increment in weight. The current work is based on the fabrication of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites with the addition of TiC (Titanium Carbide) and Al2O3 (Aluminium Oxide) reinforcement particle using stir casting technique. Three types of hybrid composite samples were prepared based on the weight percentage 5% Al2O3+0% TiC (sample-1), 8% Al2O3 + 12% TiC (sample-2), 20% Al2O3+15% TiC (sample-3). The objective of the study is to analyze the mechanical and corrosion properties of the hybrid composite with the influence of the reinforcement and varying the weight fraction of the particles.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue Behavior of Shallow Cryogenically Treated EN19 Alloy Steel

2019-10-11
2019-28-0100
Tensile and axial fatigue tests were conducted on shallow cryogenically treated EN19 medium carbon alloy steel to investigate its mechanical behavior. The test samples were conventionally heat treated then oil quenched at room temperature. Followed by the samples were kept for shallow cryogenic treatment to -80°C for 8 hours using liquid nitrogen. Then the samples were tempered in a muffle furnace to relieve the induced residual stresses. Tensile and axial fatigue test were carried out on both treated and non-treated samples to measure its tensile strength and fatigue behavior respectively. Microscopic examination also had done to compare the effect of shallow cryogenic treatment on its microstructure. The results exposed that there is an increase in the tensile strength and reduction in fatigue life of shallow cryogenically treated samples over base metal and improved wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Appraisal of Tribo Meter Study on 20MnCr5 Alloy Steel under Case Hardened and Shot Peened Condition

2019-10-11
2019-28-0098
This research is limited to study the strength and wear resistance of 20MnCr5 (SAE 5120) alloy steel under monolithic, case hardened and case hardened with shot peening processing condition. Improve the hardness of the material by enhancing the core and surface strength of case hardened with the shot peened sample. The main objective of this proposed work is to conduct the tribometer test by varying the load of 10, 20, 30 and 40N and sliding speed of 193, 386 rpm respectively on wear rate and coefficient of friction be calculated and recorded for this study. Less wear rate and nominal coefficient of friction were observed for case hardened with the shot peened sample. Load increases wear rate increases and the coefficient of friction decreases when sliding distance increases wear rate decreases and the coefficient of friction increases for all the tested samples due to oxide layer formation.
Technical Paper

Influence of Retained Austenite on Fatigue Performance of Carburized Gears

2019-10-11
2019-28-0102
SAE 8620 and 20CrMo materials were subjected to carburizing process to obtain the identical hardened layer of HRC 61-64. The carburized surface and core properties of the materials were examined and characterized through optical microstructure to measure the presence of cementite carbides and Retained Austenite (RA). From the results, it was found that the SAE 8620 and 20CrMo materials have 10 % and 14% of RA respectively. Whereas, the core and case structure were free from network carbides. The fatigue test was conducted to correlate the RA and fatigue strength of the materials. It was revealed that material with lower RA has higher fatigue strength than material with higher RA. Higher amount of retained austenite leads to reduction in amount of martensitic and compressive residual stress attributed to lower the contact fatigue strength.
Technical Paper

Stress and Model Analysis of Upper and Lower Bolster Components of Molten Steel Transfer Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0119
The transportation of hot metal from blast furnaces to melting shops is carried out by molten steel transfer vehicle such as Torpedo ladle car in the steel plants. In need to design Torpedo ladle car within size limitation, capacity requirement and withstanding the impact, static, thermal shock and abrasion conditions, structural analysis is essential for validation. In this paper, stress and model analysis for upper and lower bolsters of Torpedo Ladle Car is carried out. The components are modelled in CAD and analysed using finite element method using software with the required boundary conditions. The results of structural analysis of bolster components are presented and discussed. The results shows that the deflection at the centre of upper and lower bolster was due to bending and applied load. The modal analysis predicted the natural frequencies by using block lanczos method.
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