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Training / Education

AS13004 Process Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans

2019-10-23
In the Aerospace Industry there is a growing focus on Defect Prevention to ensure that quality goals are met. Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plan activities described in AS13004 are recognized as being one of the most effective, on the journey to Zero Defects. This two-day course is designed to explain the core tools of Process Flow Diagrams, Process Failure Mode & Effects Analysis (PFMEA) and Control Plans as described in AS13004. It will show the links to other quality tools such as Design FMEA, Characteristics Matrix and Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA).
Training / Education

Introduction to Rubber Science and Technology

2019-10-15
Rubber – a loosely cross-linked network of polymer chains that when strained to high levels will forcibly return to at or near it original dimensions. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of rubber’s engineering characteristics. This class will introduce the various sources of rubber, both natural and synthetic. The class will contrast the differences between rubber and plastics; including thermoplastic rubber. Detailed discussions on how to select the correct rubber polymer for the application, highlighting the pros and cons of each major rubber type.
Training / Education

Basics of Silicone Rubber Science and Technology

2019-10-14
Silicone rubber is comprised of inorganic-organic polymers. These materials consist of an inorganic backbone with organic side groups attached to silicon atoms. This family of polymers possesses unmatched versatility giving the formulator and user multiple forms and methods to cross link the polymers into rubber materials having the widest service temperature range of any rubber material. This course is designed to provide the participant with a thorough understanding of silicone’s engineering characteristics.
Training / Education

Introduction to Advanced High Strength Steel Applications and Manufacturing

2019-10-08
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are now commonly used in automotive body structural applications. The high strength of this grade classification is attractive to help reduce mass in the automotive body through reduction in thickness. Strength also supports improvements in safety requirements so that mass increases are minimized. In some specific grades of AHSS, energy absorption is possible in addition to the high strength. This course will review the definition and properties of AHSS and cover several common applications in automotive body structures.
Technical Paper

Local Weakening of Honeycomb Core for Improved Surface Quality and Bonding in Co-cured Sandwich Panels

2019-09-16
2019-01-1859
Sandwich panels made of NOMEX honeycomb core and fiber reinforced face sheets are a major component of aircraft interior parts. A common way to locally increase the strength of such panels, e.g. for load introduction, is the local thickening of the face sheets with additional prepreg layers. Curing of such strengthened panels without further processing of the core leads to higher flatness tolerances due to the added thickness as well as residual stresses. Machining of the core in the strengthened areas is possible, but expensive due to high machine costs and additional cleaning processes. In this paper a new automated process for the reduction of the residual stresses in strengthened areas is presented. The process is based on a local reduction of the compressive strength in the surface area of the honeycomb core, which allows for a plastic deformation in thickened areas at curing pressure.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of assembly processes for Adhesive bonded Brackets onto the airframe structure

2019-09-16
2019-01-1855
Aircraft manufacturers use adhesive bonded brackets (ABB) to support wire harnesses, looms and sensors. Using ABBs eliminates the necessity to drill holes in the airframe and significantly reduces the assembly time. Such brackets are installed manually on the airframes in numerous locations using high strength epoxy based adhesives. In addition, the application of adhesive onto bracket is carried out manually. Thus it's time consuming and quality relies on operator’s skill sets to apply a certain quantity of adhesive using a predefined pattern, both of which are commonly not controlled. On the other hand, removing the damaged brackets by manual operations tend to cause dents and scratches in metallic airframes and delamination in composites. Prior research indicates that the brackets can be removed by heating them. But, they are not recommendable to aerospace manufacturers due to the longer process times.
Technical Paper

ORBITAL DRILLING OPTIMIZATION IN HIGH SPEED MACHINING AND FATIGUE LIFE ENHANCEMENT BY ORBITAL ROLLER BURNISHING: APPLICATION TO AN ALUMINUM ALLOY

2019-09-16
2019-01-1861
Orbital drilling has proved to be advantageous to achieve aeronautical-level quality drilling (surface roughness, geometry control…) fully adapted for complex assemblies in a single operation. However, compared to conventional drilling method, this process leads to a drastic change in structure's fatigue life probably due to a non-optimised level of residual stress. The control of the mechanical behaviour of parts obtained by orbital drilling is the goal of the European-CleanSky collaborative R&D project RODEO (Robotized Orbital Drilling Equipment and Optimized Residual Stresses, GA no.738219). In this work, an orbital drilling unit (ORBIBOT) allowing high-speed-machining conditions was developed by PRECISE France, that can be integrated on a lightweight industrial robot. Cutting parameters were determined through an original Tool-Material Couple optimization strategy dedicated to orbital drilling, developed with MITIS Engineering and carried out on aluminium alloy 2024-T351.
Technical Paper

Numerical investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for vehicle Coating

2019-09-16
2019-01-1856
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. The algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE).
Technical Paper

MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESSES RISCS BASED ON MODIFIED FMEA

2019-09-16
2019-01-1870
The quality of production is defined by the actual deviations from the requirements stated in design and technological documentation including drawings. In this article the problem of ensuring steady decrease in quantity of deviations from these requirements by production is considered. Carrying out preventive actions, in combination with control of time and costs of correction of discrepancies of such decrease it is possible to achieve. For the solution of an objective the method of the modified FMEA using parameters and levels of ranging as elements of operation of technological process where at a design stage of a product are set structure, is offered and are adjusted on the basis of feedback of production and operation. Such statement of a problem demands automation of collecting and data processing which can be used for creation of the knowledge base necessary for management of productions.
Technical Paper

Identifying Virtuous Cycles of Using Real-Time Process Data in Portable Semi-Automated Electric Drilling

2019-09-16
2019-01-1875
Purpose: Thanks to the long lifetimes of aerospace platforms, manufacturers face opportunities for improving the manufacturing processes of legacy products. However, the potential benefits of process innovations must be carefully balanced with the costs. One such opportunity is offered through portable semi-automated electric drilling. The purpose of this paper is to identify critical elements in building a business case for incorporating portable semi-automated electric drills on aerospace products and processes. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on institutional knowledge, we distinguish three entities in hole-generation tasks: hole types, hole-cutting tools, and hole-cutting assets (e.g. portable drills). We identify the specific needs, requirements and constraints in hole generation by focusing on each entity and the relationships between them. We then examine the implications of introducing sensor-equipped portable electric drills that allow real-time process data collection.
Technical Paper

Forces vibration assistance for TA6V/CFRP drilling

2019-09-16
2019-01-1874
For aircraft structures, mechanical assembly using fasteners remains the most common technology. The setting of the numerous fasteners requires a large number of drilling operations. In the case of CFRP/TA6V stacks, the drilling still remains a technological challenge. Indeed the high-quality requirements by the aeronautic standards are limited by the fast damaging drilling tool phenomena. For TA6V, the forced assisted drilling provides a breakthrough technology. An axial forced oscillating displacement on the feed direction of the tool allows the creation of segmented chips. Those small chips are then easily evacuated from the cutting area using a vacuum device. This allows the improvement of the hole’s roughness and mastering the burr creation at the exit of the hole. The lubrication process is also enhanced during the exit sequence of the tool. For the CFRP/TA6V configuration, the segmented geometry of the chip avoids the roughness degradation on the composite part of the stack.
Technical Paper

A portable numerical control drilling template

2019-09-16
2019-01-1876
The automation market for aircraft assembly features several options, from deployable crawlers through mobile industrial manipulators to large scale riveters, not to mention fiber layup machines. When drilling, such equipment will typically handle at least a few hundred holes in a given area and setup, with the part most often being a nearly flat panel free of obstructions or with obstructions with a constant cross-section such as stringers. Automation is now widely employed in the manufacturing of wing and fuselage panels and major segment joints, to name a few uses. The assembly of inner structures, however, and especially those in the range of a hundred holes or less, located in areas of limited access crowded with other product structures or even positioning fixtures sitting outside and preventing machine access, is still largely manual and dependent on drilling templates or jigs (DJs).
Technical Paper

Line Side Equipment

2019-09-16
2019-01-1879
The aircraft production rate is now increasing and requires to keep the production tools as close as possible from the assembly work area. As production sites cannot be extended as much as the rate increases, this has created the need for developing innovative & efficient line side equipment, which fulfils storage capacity, ergonomical accessibility, easy handling & quick load unload performance for all aircraft part assemblies. This paper will focus on the development and the integration into the production on our innovative solutions on Line Side Equipment . The Line Side Equipment is custom designed and built for manual or semi-automated assembly lines. It offers a wide range of solutions such as dedicated storage areas, trolleys, easy acces, tool kits & smart cabinets.
Technical Paper

C919 Trailing Edge Assembly Interchangeable Tooling

2019-09-16
2019-01-1880
Traditional Trailing Edge (TE) assembly that utilise fixtures for accurate positioning of aircraft (a/c) parts do not allow for removal of specific tooling from the fixtures to travel with the TE, post assembly. Instead, the tooling that positions all the primary a/c assembly datums generally utilise precision pins of various sizes that index and clamp the a/c ribs. Often it is difficult to remove the pins post assembly before the spar can be taken out of the fixture. Use of hammers is common place to hit pins out of holes which is less than ideal considering the a/c parts can be fragile and the tooling is precision set. Also, the Main Assembly Fixture (MAJ) that will receive the TE will inevitably need to relocate some if not all the primary a/c ribs and therefore will most likely be subject to some amount of persuasion.
Technical Paper

Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Compound Helicopter Wing Assembly

2019-09-16
2019-01-1877
This paper documents the potential use of reconfigurable reusable jig tooling based on the box-joint system for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing. Due to the aircraft configuration the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of accuracy (typically 0.2mm), over the 4m length, than conventional wings. In this paper the cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable accurate build and metrology documentation. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented here. Hardware and measurement process cost modelling is documented along with results for the positional and hinge-line concentricity setting accuracy that was achieved using a laser tracking system.
Technical Paper

Optimization of automated airframe assembly process on example of A350 S19 splice joint

2019-09-16
2019-01-1882
The paper presents the numerical approach to simulation and optimization of A350 S19 splice assembly process. The main goal is to reduce the number of installed temporary fasteners while preventing the gap between parts from opening during drilling stage. The numerical approach includes computation of residual gaps between parts, optimization of fastener pattern and validation of obtained solution on input data generated on the base of available measurements. The problem is solved with ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software. The described methodology is applied to the optimization of the robotized assembly process for A350 S19 section.
Technical Paper

Advanced assembly solutions for the RACER joined-wing configuration

2019-09-16
2019-01-1884
The demonstrator project RACER is developed under the leadership of Airbus Helicopters Group within a large European partnership and concerns the development of new VTOL formula in order to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and airplanes. Thus, RACER is a compound rotorcraft including wings and propellers. The new wing arrangement suggested by Airbus Helicopters Groups is defined as a staggered bi-plane configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing at each side of the helicopter, both being interconnected at their outermost tips, forming a triangular framework. Responsible for the design, manufacturing and assembly of the wings is ASTRAL consortium consisted of GE Aviation and University of Nottingham. The identification of the best strategy to assemble the joined wing configuration is quite challenging. In order to ensure that the final wing assembly will fit to the fuselage, a jig that simulates the fuselage was suggested by Airbus Helicopters Group.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Real Time Inspection of Rivet Quality supported by Human-Robot-Collaboration

2019-09-16
2019-01-1886
Aircraft production is facing various technical challenges, such as large product dimensions, complex joining processes and the organization of assembly tasks. Meeting the requirements that come with large dimensions, low tolerances and small batch sizes, in combination with complex joining processes, automation and labour-intensive inspection task, is often difficult to achieve in an economically viable way. ZeMA believes that a semi-automated approach is the most effective for optimizing aircraft section assembly. An effective optimization of aircraft production can be achieved with a semi-automated riveting process for solid rivets using Human-Robot-Collaboration in combination with an intuitive Human-Machine-Interaction operating concept. While using dynamic task sharing between human and robot based on their skills, and considering ergonomics, the determined ideal solution involves placing a robot inside the section barrel.
Technical Paper

A New Positioning Device Designed for Aircraft Automated Alignment System

2019-09-16
2019-01-1883
Accurate and fast positioning of large aircraft component is of great importance for Automated Alignment System. The Ball joint is a widely-used mechanical device connecting the aircraft component and Automated Alignment System. However, there are some shortcomings for the device in man-machine engineering, such as the entry state of the ball-head still needs to be confirmed by the workers and then switched to the locking state manually. To solve above problems, a new positioning mechanism is present in this paper, which consists of a ball-head and a ball-socket. The new device is equipped with a monocular vision system, in which a calibrated industrial camera is used to collect the images of the ball-head. And then, the 3-D coordinate of the ball-head center is calculated by a designed algorithm, which combines the symmetry of the sphere and the principle of projection transformation, guiding the positioner to capture the ball-head.
Technical Paper

Simulation of aircraft assembly via ASRP software

2019-09-16
2019-01-1887
ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software is a special tool for modelling assembly process for large scale airframe parts. On the base of variation simulation, ASRP provides a convenient way to analyze, verify and optimize the arrangement of temporary fasteners. During the airframe assembly process certain criteria on the residual gap between parts must be fulfilled. The numerical approach realized in ASRP allows one to evaluate the quality of contact on every stage of the assembly process and solve verification and optimization problems for temporary fastener patterns. The paper is devoted to description of several specialized approaches that combine statistical analysis of measured data and numerical simulation using high-performance computing for optimization of fastener patterns, calculation of forces in fasteners needed to close initial gaps and identification of hazardous areas in junction regions.
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