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Technical Paper

Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations.

2019-09-16
2019-01-1863
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gases emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present study aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied.
Technical Paper

Numerical investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for vehicle Coating

2019-09-16
2019-01-1856
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. The algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE).
Technical Paper

MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESSES RISCS BASED ON MODIFIED FMEA

2019-09-16
2019-01-1870
The quality of production is defined by the actual deviations from the requirements stated in design and technological documentation including drawings. In this article the problem of ensuring steady decrease in quantity of deviations from these requirements by production is considered. Carrying out preventive actions, in combination with control of time and costs of correction of discrepancies of such decrease it is possible to achieve. For the solution of an objective the method of the modified FMEA using parameters and levels of ranging as elements of operation of technological process where at a design stage of a product are set structure, is offered and are adjusted on the basis of feedback of production and operation. Such statement of a problem demands automation of collecting and data processing which can be used for creation of the knowledge base necessary for management of productions.
Technical Paper

Line Side Equipment

2019-09-16
2019-01-1879
The aircraft production rate is now increasing and requires to keep the production tools as close as possible from the assembly work area. As production sites cannot be extended as much as the rate increases, this has created the need for developing innovative & efficient line side equipment, which fulfils storage capacity, ergonomical accessibility, easy handling & quick load unload performance for all aircraft part assemblies. This paper will focus on the development and the integration into the production on our innovative solutions on Line Side Equipment . The Line Side Equipment is custom designed and built for manual or semi-automated assembly lines. It offers a wide range of solutions such as dedicated storage areas, trolleys, easy acces, tool kits & smart cabinets.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Real Time Inspection of Rivet Quality supported by Human-Robot-Collaboration

2019-09-16
2019-01-1886
Aircraft production is facing various technical challenges, such as large product dimensions, complex joining processes and the organization of assembly tasks. Meeting the requirements that come with large dimensions, low tolerances and small batch sizes, in combination with complex joining processes, automation and labour-intensive inspection task, is often difficult to achieve in an economically viable way. ZeMA believes that a semi-automated approach is the most effective for optimizing aircraft section assembly. An effective optimization of aircraft production can be achieved with a semi-automated riveting process for solid rivets using Human-Robot-Collaboration in combination with an intuitive Human-Machine-Interaction operating concept. While using dynamic task sharing between human and robot based on their skills, and considering ergonomics, the determined ideal solution involves placing a robot inside the section barrel.
Technical Paper

Automation of Sorting and Kitting from cutting tables

2019-09-16
2019-01-1899
Within the current part production of carbon fiber parts a lot of manual work is included for sorting and kitting of automatic cut plies. This is required due to the high raw material costs and enables a good utilization of the materials. Automation of this non-value adding process will be a big benefit for the part production. The high variety of shapes and the different materials to be processed are complex boundary conditions, which are to be overcome. Broetje is in development of handling systems and automation solutions, which are used for a high variety of materials as well as for a high variety of shapes. These systems are meant to be an add-on for existing cutting tables as well as for fully integrated production systems with downstream automation equipment like draping hoods. Mayor challenges to overcome are safe gripping capabilities, detection of #non-cut fibers, high variety of shapes, complex logistic management. These challenges are addressed with Broetje’s ASK Solution.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

2019-09-16
2019-01-1901
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification.
Technical Paper

NDT Application from Conventional to Digital Radiography for the Aircraft Maintenance Industry

2019-09-16
2019-01-1907
Technological innovation can provide improved productivity, increased cost savings, and it can keep or make an organisation competitive. Digital radiography for non-destructive testing (NDT) is such a promising innovation. In organisations with large scale utilisation of non-destructive testing, a transition from film to digital radiography is easily justified. Nevertheless, this is not the case for every organisation. Next to the operational workflow, system flexibility, quality, and regulatory issues also play a role in the trade-off. Especially in the aircraft maintenance industry, where the non-destructive operation is related to a lot of different factors. Motivated by the developments of digital radiography, the NDT department of KLM Engineering & Maintenance (E&M) requested advice in reconsidering their conventional film radiography capabilities. The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of digital radiography at KLM E&M.
Technical Paper

Improving and Evaluating Aircraft Maintenance On-Time Performance for Wide-Body A-Checks Delays

2019-09-16
2019-01-1909
Martinair is based on Schiphol Oost and is part of the KLM Group since 2008. The KLM Group on its turn is part of the Air France – KLM Group. Martinair started as a charter company and was founded by Martin Schröder. Martinair is now a cargo operator with its own maintenance base at Hangar 32 on Schiphol Oost. It operates 7 McDonnell Douglas MD-11’s and 6 Boeing B747-400’s. The focus will be on the MD-11 tri-jet in this thesis. Due to the entry in the KLM Group in 2008, changes have been made for synergy reasons to the Martinair organisation. Martinair Maintenance and Engineering is now focussing on becoming a Regional Jet Center. The maintenance on the Embraer E-190 of KLM Cityhopper will be the main part of the work. Due to the new focus of the Martinair maintenance and engineering department, the maintenance capacity for a MD-11 A-check will no longer be available.
Technical Paper

Improving competitiveness of Additive Manufacturing Aerospace serial parts

2019-09-16
2019-01-1900
The interest of selective laser melting technology for aerospace parts is very high due to their high complexity and their freedom of design which allow functions integration. However, the competitiveness of Laser Beam Melting (LBM) machines for aerospace industry is limited by two major road blocks. On the one hand, basic parametric set sold with LBM machines are more oriented to historical qualification than productivity rates. For instance, the ongoing qualification on EOS M290 by AIRBUS COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT only enables us to produce a hundred pieces per machine per year. On the other hand, wasted times between two consecutive manufacturing batches are significant and are impacting the yearly output of the machines. The present project focuses on two activities, focusing on the largest available machines, XLINE2000R and M400, in order to maximize the amount of pieces per build.
Technical Paper

Analytical Model for Calibration Results performances enhancement, resulting in automated prescription for equipments

2019-09-16
2019-01-1878
The current aeronautical manufacturing sector is characterized by the high level of competence and the required requirement in its production processes, based on the objectives of profitability and safety (airworthiness). In recent years, there is a real revolution in the sector, where the most advanced tools for the organization and optimization of production are given priority, supported by the latest massively used techniques of automatic data collection. , their organized storage and their analytical classification. Metrology plays a key role in ensuring the quality and reliability of the information generated in these productive cycles. The provision of an analytical model of flexible measurement systems, capable and easily adaptable to the dynamics of the company, is presented as one of the pillars in which this new conception of production is based.
Standard

Oil, Reference, for "L" Stock Rubber Testing

2019-06-13
WIP
AMS3020B
This specification covers a petroleum-base reference oil. This fluid has been typically used as a reference oil to estimate the ability of elastomeric compounds to conform to specified requirements after immersion at a specified temperature for a specified time and temperature as required by the material.
Standard

Polyamide Type 6-6, Plastic Moldings and Extrusions

2019-06-13
CURRENT
AMS3617F
This specification covers one type of nylon thermoplastic resin in the form of moldings and extrusions. These products have been used typically for parts requiring high strength and resistance to aircraft fuels and lubricants up to 120 degrees C (248 degrees F), but usage is not limited to such applications.
Standard

Messages for Handling Strings and Look-up Tables in ATIS Standards

2019-06-11
CURRENT
J2540_201906
This SAE Standard defines methods and messages to efficiently translate sequences of text and other types of data into and out of indexed values and look-up tables for effective transmission. This document defines: a. Methods and Data Elements for handling indexes and strings in ATIS applications and message sets b. Message Sets to support the delivery and translations of tables used in such strings c. Tables of Nationally standardized strings for use in ATIS message descriptions And examples of each in illustrative portions. While developed for ATIS use, the methods defined in this document are useful for any textual strings in any Telematics applications found both in Intelligent Vehicles and elsewhere.
Standard

Standard Practice for Production, Distribution, and Procurement of Metal Stock

2019-06-10
CURRENT
AS6279B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes requirements applicable to metal stock that is ordered and produced in accordance with an Aerospace Material Specification (AMS). Topics include producer requirements, distributor requirements, size and grain orientation nomenclature, and purchaser ordering information to distributors. Requirements of this document have been developed to address titanium and titanium alloys, aluminum and aluminum alloys, carbon and alloy steels, and corrosion and heat-resistant alloys.
Standard

Cable, Power, Electrical, Portable General Specification For

2019-06-07
CURRENT
AS5756B
This specification covers 600 V heavy duty, portable, power, single and multiconductor, electrical cable for severe flexing service (see detail specifications for voltage limitations). The AS5756 insulation system has been used in aerospace ground power applications using 115/200 V (phase to neutral) at 400 Hz AC. Verification of the suitability of this product for use in other electrical system configurations (600 V, etc.) is the responsibility of the user.
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