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Technical Paper

A Mathematical Approach to Determine Die Wear during Forging Process and Validation by Experimental Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2563
The automotive industry is constantly trying to develop cost effective, high strength and lightweight components to meet the emission and safety norms while remaining competitive in the market. Forging process plays an important role to produce most of the structural components in a vehicle. Precision forging technology is used to produce components with little or no flash leading to elimination of machining process after forging. The load acting on the dies during net or near net forging is very high and leads to wear in the die. In order to have a good die it is important that die wear which is an inevitable phenomenon in a bulk metal forming processes is predicted mathematically. In this study a review on the vast number of studies done in the area of wear and various predictive models is carried out.
Technical Paper

MOLD IN COLOR DIAMOND WHITE ASA MATERIAL FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXTERIOR APPLICATION

2019-11-21
2019-28-2562
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2542
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
Technical Paper

SIMULATION OF SOFTENING AND RUPTURE IN MULTILAYERED FUEL TANK MATERIAL

2019-11-21
2019-28-2557
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Plastic automotive fuel tanks made up of blow molded, multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) material can take complex shapes with varying thickness. Accidental drop of fuel tank from a height during handling can lead to development of cracks. Damage can also occur due to an impact during a crash. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases. Methodology Different aspects were considered to develop a characterization and modelling strategy for the HDPE fuel tank. Material properties can be influenced by factors such as, service temperature, rate of deformation, state of stress etc.
Technical Paper

Design of Additive Manufactured Thermoplastic Component as FMVSS 201U Countermeasure

2019-11-21
2019-28-2547
Research and/or Engineering Questing/Objectives: Safety of the occupant in passenger cars is one of the regulatory requirements in many developed countries. This includes upper interior head impact load case of the unbelted occupant during crash (FMVSS 201U) as one of them. During a crash event the occupant head can collide with the interior parts of the vehicle, such as a headliner, pillar trim and other subsequent components in the loading direction. Injury on the head is quantified in terms of the Head Injury Criterion of a crash test dummy (HIC(d)) value which should be less than 1000 per standard. Several ways can be adopted to reduce the HIC(d) value. These include a change in the design of ribs in the safety plastic components, headliner profile change, use of countermeasure foam between headliner and the exterior sheet metal parts, or a combination of any of these to absorb the energy of impact.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb reinforced Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2538
Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Plastics Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Chennai. India Key Words: Paper Honeycomb, Epoxy Composites, Mechanical Properties, Tensile, Impact & Flexural Test Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective : Composite Materials are widely being used in many engineering applications because of their desirable properties & Cost, Weight Effectiveness. They are widely being used as their Strength-Weight Ratio is Higher than any Other Material. Paper Honeycomb Material is basically a paper made of honeycomb shapes enforced between layers of Glass Mat. This paper deals with the evaluation of Tensile Strength, Flexural (Three-Point Bending) Strength & Flexural Modulus, Impact Strength of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Composites. The Scope of this Material defines the quality of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Composites which can be used for Automotive Trim Parts.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior cleanliness tracker

2019-11-21
2019-28-2466
The future of mobility is being driven towards fully autonomous driving. As a result, people spend majority of the time in vehicles for chores other than driving. The focus of automotive makers shifts towards providing best-in-class passenger comfort. One of the least focused area in passenger comfort is vehicle interior cleanliness which requires periodic human intervention. An intelligent vehicle can outsmart a human by self-caring to maintain the cleanliness elements on floor, seat and roof. This paper addresses subjects like wetness, dirt and stains in the vehicle interior utilizing the capability of Interior sensing platform. An internally mounted camera in the vehicle can capture images of the interior and apply image processing techniques to identify the subjects mentioned above. The wetness on the floor mats can lead to moldy odor, corrosion, failure of the electronic components in the car.
Technical Paper

Development of low cost life saving system for Automotive vehicles during Road Accidents.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2460
According to research study 45% of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also loose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect. When vehicle met accident, people are not getting on time support, this delay is the major cause of death in developing nations. Presently there is no any robust system available in market for passenger & commercial vehicles which helps to provide on time help to the injured persons & saves human life. In current situation low cost life saving device is need of our society. This paper deals with the design & development of the low cost-life saving device. This paper also comprises the scenario when any vehicle meet an accidents within certain speed limit then how the intelligent life saving device will work & save the life's.
Technical Paper

LIGHT WEIGHTING OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED PARTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS THROUGH TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2544
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent time. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding, casting etc., AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the material consumption of the produced parts. This paper reports case studies of 3D printed parts used in an Automobile plant’s production aids, which utilize computational methods(CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part in the most optimal way.
Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle.

2019-10-22
2019-01-2611
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor perception and Motion planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of environment relative to vehicle’s frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analysing the sensor’s information about the local frame and global map while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local and global map.
Technical Paper

Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

2019-10-11
2019-28-0004
With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of De-Lavel Restrictor with Throttle Body for Formula Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0009
The restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As an constrain of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venture nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. A de lavel nozzle is a tube pinched in the middle, making an asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a higher supersonic speed in the axial direction. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degrees) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degrees) are taken into consideration.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of an Intercity Bus through Surface Modifications - A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Technical Paper

Development and Influence of Setting Process Variables in Single Point Incremental Sheet Metal Forming of AA 8011 Using Complex Proportional Assessment and ANOVA

2019-10-11
2019-28-0064
Single point Incremental forming (SPIF) is a metal forming process that has achieved impeccable quality since the early 1990s. ISF is a very limited twisting process in which an improved device that must be used after a particular direction travels on a metal sheet to form the desired shape. Process parameters such as axial feed (mm), feed (mm / min), tool diameter (mm) and depth (mm) at the interface between samples during SPIF greatly affect the quality of the cone. Maximum thinning (mm), cone height (mm), wall angle (mm), formation time (minutes), etc. The purpose of this study was to study these parameters by improving the cone mass formed by VMC. For a detailed study of these parameters, experiments were performed using the orthogonal array L9. Output parameters such as mechanical quality effects were analysed using COPRAS (Complex Proportional Assessment of alternatives) and ANOVA.
Technical Paper

Squeak Behavior of Plastic Interfaces

2019-10-11
2019-28-0083
Automotive is getting advanced and increasingly comfortable with new technologies and demand from customers. Car cabins have become much quieter as compared yesteryears. Where the outside noise has gone down significantly, secondary and small noises like squeak and rattle have become more prominent. Squeak though a transient and short lived, is an unexpected noise and often considered as an irritant. There is an increasing need felt to eliminate squeak completely from the interiors of the vehicle where choice materials play dominant role. This article briefs about the work done on evaluating different plastic interfaces for squeak behavior using Stick-Slip method. Some plastic surfaces were even tested with other interfaces like leather and vinyl coated fabrics. Choice of plastic material and interfaces to be tested were shortlisted after studying many different vehicles and benchmarking.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Hood

2019-10-11
2019-28-0086
The need for eco-friendly materials is recently increasing in the automobile and aerospace sectors. Material selection for automobile components is influenced by various factors such as cost, weight and strength. Natural fibers offers various advantages over conventional materials such as environmental friendly, easily available, recyclable and higher specific strength. Among the natural fibers Sisal and Kenaf fibers are selected for present study due to their good mechanical properties and availability. Kenaf fibers have great potential to be used as construction and automotive materials due to their long fibers which are derived from the bast. Sisal fibers do not absorb moisture and possess good impact, sound absorbing properties and high fire resistance properties. Epoxy LY556 is selected as matrix material to bind the combination of these two natural fibers due to its high temperature resistance and adherence to reinforcements.
Technical Paper

Analogy of Thermal Properties of Polyamide 6 Reinforced with Glass Fiber and Glass Beads through FDM Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0137
The essential target of this examination is to compare the morphological and thermal properties of two different polyamide composite blends with inventive thermal properties. The polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass fiber (GF) and PA6 reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt. % glass beads (GB) are the two different polyamide composite blends extruded in form of wire by twin screw extrusion process. The experimental study illustrates to print the specimens by means of Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) based Three-Dimensional (3D) printer. The responses like morphology, Thermal Conductivity (TC) and Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT) of composites were observed. From the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis equal distribution of higher 30wt% GF and GB in the PA6 matrix was observed. The results compare the increasing thermal properties of the 3D printed specimen like TC and HDT with the enhancement of beads content during the investigation.
Technical Paper

Die Design Parameter Optimization for Steering Intermediate Tube Using Taguchi Method

2019-10-11
2019-28-0128
The increasing demand for lower cost and higher reliability of product of Indian OEM’s, one of the approach is using cheaper raw material considering design for X. In current steering intermediate tube, the development of replacing the imported material of STKM11A by local material of same grade has been done. The microstructure comparison shows there is variation in grain size and Mechanical properties of local and imported material and thus affects the formability of material. Increasing in mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength of material leads to challenge in actual forming as it affects the die life and its performance. In this paper, Non-linear explicit Axial cold forming process of Intermediate tube has been simulated through Finite Element Analysis Tool for both the local and imported material with optimization of die parameters. Dimensional requirement was one of the important parameter to correlate between the Design and Forming simulation.
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