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Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

C123 Methodology for concept design of the Chassis Frame

2019-11-21
2019-28-2534
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven concept process, C123 for developing the chassis frame of the SUV along with Multidisciplinary optimisation tool. C123 process is useful for strategic & systematic usage of optimisation to generate design alternatives, trade-off information, best balanced designs, design sensitivities, to actively support the concept development process on daily basis. Methodology C123 is used for developing initial concept design of the chassis frame of the SUV. C123 process is independent of vehicle architectures, manufacture process (e.g. extrusions, sheet metal) & material selection (e.g. metals, composites, mixed etc.) and platform sharing strategy. C1 process is used for identification of optimum Structural Layout, C2 is for rapid optimum Sizing of idealized Sections, C3 is used for detailed optimum Sizing of Manufacturable Sections. Automatic process is used for handling pre and post processing process very efficiently.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

Suspension hard points optimisation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2419
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven optimisation process, Front Suspension hard points of a sedan Car model are optimised for specific target toe curves using MotionView, MotionSolve and HyperStudy This process gives the optimal hard point values to match the target curves without much iterations. Methodology Parametric Multibody model of the front end of sedan is built in MotionView. To Carry out optimisation HyperStudy is used where few of the suspension hard points which affect the toe curves are chosen as design variable. For the chosen Design variables upper and lower bound limits are specified. Ride, Roll and lateral force tests are performed. Optimisation is performed using HyperStudy where it iterates the suspension hard points to match the target toe curves. Each iteration response can be visualized in HyperStudy and can be compared with the target toe curve.
Technical Paper

Transient Response Analysis and Synthesis of an FSAE Vehicle using Cornering Compliance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2400
OBJECTIVE Race vehicles are designed to achieve higher lateral acceleration arising at cornering conditions. A focused study on the steady state handling of the car is essential for the analysis of such conditions. The transient response analysis of the car is also equally important to achieve best driver-car relationship and to quantify handling in the range suitable for a racing car. This research aims to investigate the design parameters responsible for the transient characteristics and optimize those design parameters. This research work examines the time-based analysis of the problem to truly capture the non-linear dynamics. Apart from tires, chassis can be tuned to optimize vehicle handling and hence the response times. METHODOLOGY To start with, the system is modelled with governing parameters and simulation is carried out to set baseline configurations. Steady state and transient handling simulations run independent of each other with independent logic, coded on MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Objective and Subjective test results for Ride comfort with Heave, Pitch and Roll motion for a Passenger Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2410
Research Objective The importance of evaluating ride comfort with high degrees of accuracy objectively and its correlation with subjective perception is increasing day by day because of the long duration of the driving experience. The complex motion of the vehicle which is the combination of heave, roll and pitch motion is responsible for causing extreme uneasiness to the driver as well as the passenger. In this paper, ride comfort evaluation is done on the highway with similar traffic conditions with the help of Vibration Dose Value Analysis, Suspension Working Space and Ride Diagram methods for two hatchbacks and its correlation with the complex motion like choppiness of the vehicle is established that will help us to enhance the driver ride experience. Methodology The ride testing is performed for two hatchbacks on a highway road with different kinds of terrain ranging from highly uneven road roughness to moderately smooth surface for a speed range of 60-100 kmph.
Technical Paper

FABRICATION AND WEAR CHARACTERISTICS BASALT FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE MATRIX COMPOSITES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2570
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
Technical Paper

An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm used in heavy commercial vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2550
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Light Weighting Through Roll Stiffness Change on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

2019-11-21
2019-28-2406
Objective To achieve better fuel economy and reduced carbon footprint, OEMs are reducing the sprung and unsprung mass. This translates into a reduction in stiffness which profoundly deteriorates the handling/road holding characteristics of the vehicle. To model these changes in stiffness, modifications are made to suspension roll stiffness at the front and rear. This study compares different configurations of roll stiffness and evaluates vehicle behavior using frequency response characteristics and phase change of Yaw Gain recorded. The present work associates acquired data with subjective feedback to outline the shift in vehicle balance emerging from a variation of sprung and unsprung mass ratio. Methodology To study the frequency response characteristics of the vehicle, the pulse input is chosen for this. An ideal pulse input’s Fourier transform represents constant amplitude over all the frequency ranges. By giving a single input, the system is subjected to a range of frequencies.
Technical Paper

INTRODUCTION OF GREEN LED LIGHT FOR SAFETY, POLLUTION CONTROL, FUEL SAVING AND MOTION INDICATOR IN AUTOMOBILES.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2455
Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective - This invention relates to introduction of GREEN LED LIGHT for safety, fuel saving, pollution control and motion indicator in automobiles. At present, every vehicle is provided with red light, orange light and white light at the rear end of the vehicle. Now, there is no such light which can tell about the motion of the vehicle, whether the vehicle's engine is using its power to move or going on in rolling condition. According to the present invention a GREEN LED LIGHT is introduced at the rear end f the vehicle. The green led light is on when the vehicle is using its engine's power to move. At present, when we drive behind the vehicle we continuously make assumption about the motion of the vehicle in front of us. This GREEN LED LIGHT will give exact information about the motion of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Study of Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0141
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process by employing two different types of filler rods such as SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue behavior of shallow cryogenically treated En19 alloy steel

2019-10-11
2019-28-0100
Wear, tensile and axial fatigue tests were conducted on shallow cryogenically treated En19 medium carbon alloy steel to investigate its mechanical behavior. The test samples are conventionally heat treated then oil quenched at 34 ˚C. Followed by the samples were kept under shallow cryogenic treatment to -80˚C for 12 hours using liquid nitrogen. Then the samples were tempered in a muffle furnace to relieve the induced residual stresses. Wear, Tensile and axial fatigue test was carried out on both treated and non-treated samples to measure its wear resistance, tensile strength and fatigue behavior respectively. Microscopic examination also done using scanning electron microscope to compare the effect of shallow cryogenic treatment on its microstructure. The results exposed that there is a reduction in the tensile strength and fatigue life of shallow cryogenically treated samples over base metal and improved wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Design and analysis of De-laval restrictor with throttle body for formula Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0009
Design and analysis of De-laval restrictor with throttle body for formula Vehicle Dr Soundararajan SKECT , Mr. Pradeep C, Force Motors , Mr. Ashwin Sriram, SKECT. Abstract Restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As a constraint of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venturi nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degree) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degree) are taken into consideration.
Technical Paper

Assessment of tribo meter study of 20MnCr5 alloy steel under case hardened and shot peened condition

2019-10-11
2019-28-0098
This research is constrained to study the strength and wear resistance of 20MnCr5 (SAE 5120) alloy steel under monolithic, case hardened and case hardened with shot peening processing condition. Improve the hardness of the material by enhancing the core and surface strength of case hardened with shot peened sample. The principle goal of this proposed work is to conduct the tribo meter test for the three test samples by differing the load of 5, 10, 15 and 20N and sliding speed of 290,580,870 rpm respectively. The impact on tribo meter process parameters on wear rate and co-efficient of friction be calculated and recorded for this study. Less wear rate and nominal co-efficient of friction was observed for case hardened with shot peened sample. Load and sliding distance increases wear rate decreases and co-efficient of friction increases for all the tested samples due to oxide layer formation.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study on Electrothermally Actuated Novel Compliant Micro-gripper

2019-10-11
2019-28-0032
At Micron-levels, Thermal Actuation provides higher forces compared to the largely-used electrostatic mode of actuation. To achieve larger displacements at lesser voltages, the principle of Electro thermal actuation is used. It works on the principle of selective non-uniform Joule heating; which results in thermal expansion of the specimen due to constraints. The gripper proposed in this work is analyzed using FEA and is fabricated using Aluminum and stainless steel to achieve quicker response. The in-plane displacement, strain, stress, current density and temperature have been predicted for different magnitudes of current-voltage combination that the gripper sustains. It was found that, micro gripper performs well under 1v giving 60µm displacement. Parametric sweep was carried out using commercially available FEA software package; COMSOL Multiphysics, to study and analyse the effect of different parameters on the performance of the gripper.
Technical Paper

Advances in Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Alloys

2019-10-11
2019-28-0056
As a fusion welding process, Laser welding has proven to be the most promising method for joining of different materials it can be either a similar or dissimilar material category.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Metallurgical analysis of HSLA steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with different shielding gases

2019-10-11
2019-28-0069
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gas in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. The sheet plate of size 300mmx150mmx10mm is taken and welded by GTAW process using argon and helium on the shielding gas. DMR 249A plates are welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140ᵒ C and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min which is maintained to get a balanced phases of α and γ where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. The sheets contain 1.9%Ti and 6.2% Ni and the weld beads were studied for both the type of shielding gases.
Technical Paper

Multi Characteristics Optimization of Treated Drill Tool in Drilling Operation Key Process Parameter Using TOPSIS and ANOVA Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0055
To survive in the present global competitive world, the manufacturing sectors have been making use of various tools to achieve the high quality products at a comparatively cheaper price. Appropriate cutting set up must be used to further better the machinability of a work piece material. A longer life of the tools and equipments are important factors in any industry. Since the inception of the machine tool industry, cutting tool life and tool wear remain a subject of deep interest to study its failure and improvement. The present study finds out the optimum cutting results in drilling of AM60 magnesium alloy using different cryogenically treated cutting inserts. The Utility concept coupled with Taguchi with Multi response approach (TOPSIS) was employed. According to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, the feed was the major dominating factor followed by the cutting speed.
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