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Training / Education

Applied Brake Controls ABS, TCS, and ESC

2020-01-27
Experience the vehicle dynamic enhancements afforded by anti-lock brakes (ABS), traction control (TCS), and electronic stability control (ESC) with this highly interactive two-day seminar. Designed to get you out of the classroom and on to the test track, a total of six 60-minute structured learning experiences behind the wheel will vividly illustrate the benefits, limitations, and ultimate compromises that must be made when designing and implementing modern brake control systems.
Training / Education

FEA Beyond Basics Thermal Analysis

2019-12-16
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful and well recognized tool used in the analysis of heat transfer problems. However, FEA can only analyze solid bodies and, by necessity thermal analysis with FEA is limited to conductive heat transfer. The other two types of heat transfer: convection and radiation must by approximated by boundary conditions. Modeling all three mechanisms of heat transfer without arbitrary assumption requires a combined use of FEA and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Training / Education

Vibration Analysis Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

2019-12-02
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning considerations in the context of Automotive Functional Safety Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2519
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression.
Technical Paper

Semi-autonomous parking assist system (SA-PAS)

2019-11-21
2019-28-2529
This paper describes the Semi-autonomous parking assist system (SA-PAS) developed using combination of high accuracy position sensing and electronic power steering. A real-time system that helps driver to identify the parking space and assist to perform maneuvers. Parking is often a difficult task, especially for inexperienced drivers. Starting with the problem of having to find a suitable parking spot, to then maneuvering in to it without colliding with anything or anyone, while trying avoiding disturbing the surrounding traffic. The numbers of vehicles are rapidly increasing as compared to the expansions of roads and parking spaces. Therefore, effective use of the existing spaces is needed (by making them narrower), which can cause inconvenience to many drivers. Semi-autonomous parking assist system searches for suitable space and steers the vehicle into it, while driver has to control the gear shifter, accelerator and brakes.
Technical Paper

LIGHT WEIGHTING OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED PARTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS THROUGH TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2544
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent time. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding, casting etc., AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the material consumption of the produced parts. This paper reports case studies of 3D printed parts used in an Automobile plant’s production aids, which utilize computational methods(CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part in the most optimal way.
Technical Paper

Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2555
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of safety features of steering wheel using experimentally validated finite element model

2019-11-21
2019-28-2556
Automotive safety is the primary concern in the current world. In order to develop safe and crashworthy vehicles, phenomena behind the energy absorption characteristics of every automotive component must be known. Steering wheel is one of the key players which could cause severe injuries to the driver if sufficient safety measures are not considered. This research focuses on the crash performance of commercial vehicle steering as per head form and body block test prescribed in ECE R12. Detailed FE (Finite Element) model of the steering wheel including armature, horn pad was developed using nonlinear material properties. The model was first validated using the test results. Comparisons between experimental results and finite element analysis results were conducted and correlated using load versus displacement profiles over the duration of impact. A good relationship between test and FE results was found which allows for investigation into the energy analysis of the steering components.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

Accelerated structural durability testing of backhoe loader by creation of duty cycle from field data to predict failure modes.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2583
These days backhoe loader have become main part of construction equipment vehicles. The main function of backhoe is to dig ditches to lay pipes and underground cable, set up foundations for buildings and create drainage systems. During these operations, many failures are observed in backhoe loader structure/parts. With the help of Accelerated structural durability testing, life of backhoe loader & its part can be estimated; through which we can understand different failure modes. The real time data was collected during various operations which includes pit digging, duck walk, ditch climbing, levelling, dozing, piling, truck loading etc. We have used software based approach to process the strain, displacement and other data collected during real time operation to create the duty cycle. The same duty cycle was simulated in the lab condition using servo hydraulic actuators.
Technical Paper

REDUCTION OF STEERING VIBRATION WITH THE APPLICATION OF DYNAMIC TESTING AND ANALYSIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2421
KEYWORDS: Steering System, Engine Vibrations, Dynamics, Modal Testing, Modal Analysis, ABSTRACT - In modern agriculture, the tractor’s use is indispensable and essential for various operations like cultivation, soil preparation, pulverization and many more. However, despite being efficient machines, tractors may be subjected to different level of vibrations in various parts of their structure. The vibration often plays the key cause of invalidation and component failures and also, affecting the ride and comfort. Since it is known that such vibration factors can affect the behavior in many ways, an understanding of their dynamic response is warranted. In this paper, case study related to reduction of steering system vibration is presented. Objective and Background: Vibration reduction is linked with the reduction either at source or on path. For such, it is necessary to know the reality of machines, component and mechanisms to mitigate the vibration levels on the tractor.
Technical Paper

Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling

2019-11-21
2019-28-2456
Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling Authors: Sreeram Mohan*, Painuri Thukaram**, Panduranga Rao*** Objective / Question: Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system / subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects. Methodology: With currently available disruptive technologies , systems are integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction.
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

PMSM motor drive for Electric Vehicle applications

2019-11-21
2019-28-2475
To control air pollution in urban areas and to reduce carbon print in the cities, nowadays EV’s are preferred over IC engine vehicles. Earlier Electric vehicles used DC motor and Induction motors. But Brushless Permanent Magnet motors are preferred over Induction motor for EV’s due to their High Torque density, high-power density and highly efficiency. Prevalent Electric vehicles today have Brushless DC motors. Compared to BLDC, PMSM motor have smoother control and negligible torque ripplesThus, PMSM motor is preferred over BLDC for Electric Vehicle, because of its sinusoidal back emf which results in smoother control, and results into smoother and more comfortable driving experience to users. Methodology Sensor based field-oriented control (FOC) is implemented in 48 V 5kW Interior PMSM motor. . To start the Synchronous motor initial position of the rotor magnetic field should be known.
Technical Paper

Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2473
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions.
Technical Paper

Rapid Prototyping and Implementation of traction motor drive for E- Mobility

2019-11-21
2019-28-2472
Objective / Question: Is it possible to extend the envelope of simulation driven design and its advantages to development of complex dynamic systems viz. traction motor drives? The objective that then follows is how to enable OEM/Tier-1s to reduce wastes in the process of traction motor controller design, development, optimization and implementation. Motor control design to validation process is time consuming and tricky! Additionally, the requirement of software knowledge to write code to implement drive engineer's control ideas. The challenges here are - to name a few - algorithm for real time, addressing memory constraints, debugging, comprehending mathematical overflows, portability & BOM cost. These introduces wastes in parameters like time, cost, performance, efficiency and reliability. Methodology: Developing a new traction motor controller for E Mobility takes 18 - 24 months typically. 2 distinct activities take place in a loop.
Technical Paper

Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

2019-11-21
2019-28-2483
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Industrial Automotive Battery Management system

2019-11-21
2019-28-2498
Battery operated vehicle need accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of charge (SOC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for its safe working. So, the main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SOC, predict degradation parameters, balance individual cells, manage cell temperature, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SOC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery, also performing inductive Active balancing on cells to equalize the charge. proposed algorithms communicate with the vehicle ECU through CAN to assist the driver for runtime estimation, time for battery swapping, Alerts.
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