Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful and well recognized tool used in the analysis of heat transfer problems. However, FEA can only analyze solid bodies and, by necessity thermal analysis with FEA is limited to conductive heat transfer. The other two types of heat transfer: convection and radiation must by approximated by boundary conditions. Modeling all three mechanisms of heat transfer without arbitrary assumption requires a combined use of FEA and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
Vision based solution for auto- maneuvering of vehicle for emerging market: Author/Co-Author: Singh Ashwani, SDV Ram Kumar, Bose Souvik, Lalwani Chandraprakash General Motors Technical Centre India Key words: Image Processing, Gap finding, virtual/Imaginary lines, Advance Driver Assist System (ADAS), Vehicle to vehicle(V2V)/Vehicle to Infrastructure(V2I/V2X) Research & Engineering Objective: For the various levels of autonomous, the current perception algorithms involve considerable number of sensor inputs like cameras, radars and Lidars and their fusion logics. The planning route for the vehicle navigation is done through map information which is highly volatile and keep changing many at times. Existing steering assist feature during a curve is available by combining additional driver monitoring camera & 360 degree camera. The complexity is very high in the implementation and computation of these algorithm. These solutions are not cost-effective for emerging markets.
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression.
Shared mobility and Autonomous shared mobility take major share in Mobility 4.0. Personalization in a shared mobility will play a significant role in customer engagement in Autonomous world. In case of personal vehicle each customer will have their own personal settings in their own vehicle; in case of Autonomous shared mobility or shared mobility, we can satisfy individual customer need only by personalizing the vehicle for each individual user needs. This will give a cognitive feel of personal vehicle in a shared environment. We need technologies in improving vehicle interior and exterior systems and design to address personalization. We will be discussing on feasible opportunities of personalization and with illustrations in Vehicle Interior Cabin Space, Seat comfort, Compartments, Vehicle interior & Exterior Access / Controls.
This paper describes the Semi-autonomous parking assist system (SA-PAS) developed using combination of high accuracy position sensing and electronic power steering. A real-time system that helps driver to identify the parking space and assist to perform maneuvers. Parking is often a difficult task, especially for inexperienced drivers. Starting with the problem of having to find a suitable parking spot, to then maneuvering in to it without colliding with anything or anyone, while trying avoiding disturbing the surrounding traffic. The numbers of vehicles are rapidly increasing as compared to the expansions of roads and parking spaces. Therefore, effective use of the existing spaces is needed (by making them narrower), which can cause inconvenience to many drivers. Semi-autonomous parking assist system searches for suitable space and steers the vehicle into it, while driver has to control the gear shifter, accelerator and brakes.
To reduce the incidence of whiplash-associated disorders caused by rear impacts, head restraints should be closer to the head which decreases the amount of relative motion and it is believed to reduce the risk of soft tissue neck injury. Drivers are raising complaints that the head restraint causes discomfort by interfering with their preferred head position, forcing them to select a more reclined seat back angle . This paper is about the importance of head restraint system and how it can be improved by adjusting the angle between the head restraint and passenger`s head. It is essential to carry out research on head restraint that can be adjusted in forward and backward direction letting the cost of seats remain in budget.
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent time. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding, casting etc., AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the material consumption of the produced parts. This paper reports case studies of 3D printed parts used in an Automobile plant’s production aids, which utilize computational methods(CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part in the most optimal way.
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Automotive safety is the primary concern in the current world. In order to develop safe and crashworthy vehicles, phenomena behind the energy absorption characteristics of every automotive component must be known. Steering wheel is one of the key players which could cause severe injuries to the driver if sufficient safety measures are not considered. This research focuses on the crash performance of commercial vehicle steering as per head form and body block test prescribed in ECE R12. Detailed FE (Finite Element) model of the steering wheel including armature, horn pad was developed using nonlinear material properties. The model was first validated using the test results. Comparisons between experimental results and finite element analysis results were conducted and correlated using load versus displacement profiles over the duration of impact. A good relationship between test and FE results was found which allows for investigation into the energy analysis of the steering components.
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
These days backhoe loader have become main part of construction equipment vehicles. The main function of backhoe is to dig ditches to lay pipes and underground cable, set up foundations for buildings and create drainage systems. During these operations, many failures are observed in backhoe loader structure/parts. With the help of Accelerated structural durability testing, life of backhoe loader & its part can be estimated; through which we can understand different failure modes. The real time data was collected during various operations which includes pit digging, duck walk, ditch climbing, levelling, dozing, piling, truck loading etc. We have used software based approach to process the strain, displacement and other data collected during real time operation to create the duty cycle. The same duty cycle was simulated in the lab condition using servo hydraulic actuators.
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India.
Rolling resistance refers to the various forms of resistance against driving force when the vehicle is in motion. Several factors contribute to rolling resistance, including wind drag on the car, acceleration resistance generated by inertia force when speeding up, and resistance on the tyres. Tyre inflation pressure plays vital role on Coefficient of Rolling Resistance (RRC) of Tyre consequently vehicle mileage. Low or High tyre pressure is not good for driving comfort, safety of vehicle well as for environment. Petroleum Conservation Research Association ( PCRA ) has taken good initiative in direction to Tyre Star marking based on RRC values of Tyre.
Ride Comfort forms a central design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for heavy commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, bench-marking was carried out on a 4x2 heavy commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles-irrespective of vehicle speed- to account for random vibrations.
When i decided to buy a second hand car from a dealer to learn driving, i was sceptical of the mileage usage for which a particular price was charged. Though the well know dealer told me a about the car, its previous usage, the fact that there were no accidents, and so on, there was no reliable way to verify what the dealer was offering. In order to solve such issues, we are looking at a disruptive technique which will cause a complete paradigm shift - by using blockchain technique. This paper talks about the basics of the blockchain technology and its relevance in automotive industry. We also look at some real life scenarios, where this technology helps to build reliability as one of the implicit requirements. We will start looking at how the block chain will help to reliably select the right components in the assembly line. Also we look at different aspects of software architecture like security and how blockchain can provide solutions in this area.
Infotainment has been always an important aspect of life which has made its way to car design. The cars today are much more advanced compared to their predecessors. The in-vehicle infotainment advancements have followed the consumer electronics market in terms of technologies such as Touchscreen, App based Navigation, Voice Assistant and other multimedia services. This trend is going to expand further as smartphones have revolutionized the infotainment domain with awareness and accessibility to customers. The infotainment system in the cars are expected to be connected not only to the cloud but various vehicle controllers to display host of information & controls at customer`s fingertips. To design a system that supports connectivity to both cloud and vehicle is challenging in terms of cost and design for the OEMs. With focus on Indian market condition and global trends, this paper analyzes the customer expectation for Connected Infotainment system.
Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling Authors: Sreeram Mohan*, Painuri Thukaram**, Panduranga Rao*** Objective / Question: Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system / subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects. Methodology: With currently available disruptive technologies , systems are integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction.