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Training / Education

Fundamentals of Threaded Fasteners

2019-12-18
Fastener experts believe that upwards of 95% of all fastener failures are the result of either the wrong fastener for the job or improper installation. Whether this shocking figure is accurate or not, it is irrefutable that threaded fasteners are poorly misunderstood by many in both the fastener and user communities. In October 1990 the USS Iwo Jima suffered a catastrophic steam valve accident minutes after leaving port following repairs to its steam plant. In one of the single most deadly events of Operation Desert Storm, ten of the eleven crewmen present in the engine compartment would lose their lives.
Training / Education

FEA Beyond Basics Thermal Analysis

2019-12-16
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful and well recognized tool used in the analysis of heat transfer problems. However, FEA can only analyze solid bodies and, by necessity thermal analysis with FEA is limited to conductive heat transfer. The other two types of heat transfer: convection and radiation must by approximated by boundary conditions. Modeling all three mechanisms of heat transfer without arbitrary assumption requires a combined use of FEA and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Training / Education

Principled Negotiation

2019-12-12
This highly interactive workshop focuses training on negotiation strategy and skills. This is not the manipulative, win-lose negotiation approach frequently taught today, where the winner eventually spends time and effort protecting his negotiated advantage against erosion, while the loser continually exploits loopholes and shortcuts to recover lost ground. Traditional negotiation is a wary dance based on mistrust, the true cost of which is lost in quality and brain fatigue - usually for someone other than the negotiator - over the life of the agreement.
Training / Education

Weibull-Log Normal Analysis Workshop

2019-12-09
RMS (Reliability-Maintainability-Safety-Supportability) engineering is emerging as the newest discipline in product development due to new credible, accurate, quantitative methods. Weibull Analysis is foremost among these new tools. New and advanced Weibull techniques are a significant improvement over the original Weibull approach. This workshop, originally developed by Dr. Bob Abernethy, presents special methods developed for these data problems, such as Weibayes, with actual case studies in addition to the latest techniques in SuperSMITH® Weibull for risk forecasts with renewal and optimal component replacement.
Training / Education

Vibration Analysis Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

2019-12-02
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been used by engineers as a design tool in new product development since the early 1990's. Until recently, most FEA applications have been limited to static analysis due to the cost and complexity of advanced types of analyses. Progress in the commercial FEA software and in computing hardware has now made it practical to use advanced types as an everyday design tool of design engineers. In addition, competitive pressures and quality requirements demand a more in-depth understanding of product behavior under real life loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Machine Learning considerations in the context of Automotive Functional Safety Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2519
We are currently in the age of developing Autonomous Vehicles (AV). Never before in history, the environment has been as conducive as today for these developments to come together to deliver a mass produced autonomous car for use by general public on the roads. Several enhancements in hardware, software, standards and even business models are paving the way for rapid development of AVs, bringing them closer to production reality. Safety is an indispensable consideration when it comes to transportation products, and ground vehicle development is no different. We have several established standards. When it comes to Autonomous Vehicle development, an important consideration is ISO 26262 for, Automotive Functional Safety. Going from generic frameworks such as Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA) and Hazard and operability study (HAZOP) to Functional Safety, Safety of Intended Functionality, and Automotive Safety Integrity Levels specific is a natural progression.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2521
Abstract:At present there are a few types of transmission system available in automated industry, there might some variation in transmission system but the basic working and principle is still the same. Many big automotive manufacturers use different technologies in their transmission system but they still use the same basic principle in their transmission systems. This new technology which is brought by Koenigsegg has changed the way people think about transmission system. This new transmission system is known as Koenigsegg Direct Drive and is currently used by one automotive manufacturer and in one vehicle only, but it soon might change the way it is now.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

LIGHT WEIGHTING OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURED PARTS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PRODUCTION APPLICATIONS THROUGH TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2544
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent time. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding, casting etc., AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the material consumption of the produced parts. This paper reports case studies of 3D printed parts used in an Automobile plant’s production aids, which utilize computational methods(CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part in the most optimal way.
Technical Paper

Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2555
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of safety features of steering wheel using experimentally validated finite element model

2019-11-21
2019-28-2556
Automotive safety is the primary concern in the current world. In order to develop safe and crashworthy vehicles, phenomena behind the energy absorption characteristics of every automotive component must be known. Steering wheel is one of the key players which could cause severe injuries to the driver if sufficient safety measures are not considered. This research focuses on the crash performance of commercial vehicle steering as per head form and body block test prescribed in ECE R12. Detailed FE (Finite Element) model of the steering wheel including armature, horn pad was developed using nonlinear material properties. The model was first validated using the test results. Comparisons between experimental results and finite element analysis results were conducted and correlated using load versus displacement profiles over the duration of impact. A good relationship between test and FE results was found which allows for investigation into the energy analysis of the steering components.
Technical Paper

Employing natural plant based fiber in interior automotive parts for cost & weight benefit

2019-11-21
2019-28-2559
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India.
Technical Paper

MOLD IN COLOR DIAMOND WHITE ASA MATERIAL FOR AUTOMOTIVE EXTERIOR APPLICATION

2019-11-21
2019-28-2562
In this paper, mold in color diamond white ASA material has been explored for front bumper grill, fender arch extension and hinge cover applications. Other than aesthetic requirements, these parts have precise fitment requirement under sun load condition in real world usage profile. Structural durability of the design was validated by virtual engineering. Part design and material combinations with better tooling design iterations were analysed by using mold flow analysis. Complete product performances were validated for predefined key test metrics such as structural durability, thermal aging, cold impact, scratch resistance, and weathering criteria. This part met required specification. This mold in color ASA material-based parts has various benefits such as environmentally friendly manufacturing by eliminating environmental issues of coating, easily recycled, and faster part production because intended color achieved in one step during molding.
Technical Paper

To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

2019-11-21
2019-28-2569
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

Accelerated structural durability testing of backhoe loader by creation of duty cycle from field data to predict failure modes.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2583
These days backhoe loader have become main part of construction equipment vehicles. The main function of backhoe is to dig ditches to lay pipes and underground cable, set up foundations for buildings and create drainage systems. During these operations, many failures are observed in backhoe loader structure/parts. With the help of Accelerated structural durability testing, life of backhoe loader & its part can be estimated; through which we can understand different failure modes. The real time data was collected during various operations which includes pit digging, duck walk, ditch climbing, levelling, dozing, piling, truck loading etc. We have used software based approach to process the strain, displacement and other data collected during real time operation to create the duty cycle. The same duty cycle was simulated in the lab condition using servo hydraulic actuators.
Technical Paper

Improved update-over-the-air solution through standardization of ‘software/firmware package format and flash jobs’

2019-11-21
2019-28-2435
This paper investigates and proposes the possibilities of standardizing the software/firmware package format and flash jobs in order to provide the possibility of productizing the update-over-the-air solution regarding on-board vehicle components and make use of it in all OEMs with minimum configuration changes and customization. The update-over-the-air solution in the automotive sector is provided by various suppliers and needs to be customized to meet various OEMs requirements. Possible Variants of OEM requirements are: • Variant 1 o Customer Portal + Backend + vehicle on-board components solution from supplier • Variant 2 o Customer Portal + Backend solution from OEM o Vehicle on-board components from supplier • Variant 3 o Backend from OEM o Customer Portal + vehicle on-board components from supplier ODX, VBF, and many other formats from OEMs include software/firmware packages.
Technical Paper

Paper Title : Connectivity in 2wheeler: Opportunities & Challenges

2019-11-21
2019-28-2437
Abstract: Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 3 main pillar viz Connected , Electrified and Automated Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer Base , Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. The next step in this journey would be to connect the so called “Things” and the Things that we want to connect is the 2 wheeler in the Mobility domain This paradigm shift in the Mobility Landscape is expected to bring plethora of opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment , and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership Methodology: Analysis of OEM and Supplier strategies/approaches and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification.
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

Non-linear dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Five-Phase 10/8 Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Vehicle Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2473
The SRM is gaining much interest for EVs due to its rare-earth-free characteristic and excellent performance. SRM possess several advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, high power density, fault-tolerant and it can produce extended constant power region, and this makes SRM as viable alternative over conventional PM drives. Objective: The objective of this paper is to establish proof of theoretical concepts related to SRM. The key to achieve an effective SRM modeling is to use a methodology that allow the nonlinearity of its magnetic characteristics to be represented while maximizing the simulation speed. This paper represents how magnetization data obtained from FEA in the form of look up tables is most appropriate way to represent SRM model. In this paper, performance analysis of SRM is done with the help of Open loop and Closed loop MATLAB simulations. These dynamic simulations of SRM will assist in understanding behavior of SRM in various loading and speed conditions.
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