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Technical Paper

Influence of Engine Speed on Autoignition and Combustion Characteristics in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

2017-11-05
2017-32-0090
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. However, because HCCI engines lack a physical means of initiating ignition, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. Another issue of HCCI engines is that the combustion process causes the cylinder pressure to rise rapidly. The time scale is also important in HCCI combustion because ignition depends on the chemical reactions of the mixture. Therefore, we investigated the influence of the engine speed on autoignition and combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine. A four-stroke single-cylinder engine equipped with a mechanically driven supercharger was used in this study to examine HCCI combustion characteristics under different engine speeds and boost pressures.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion in an HCCI Engine Using Non-Equilibrium Plasma Discharge Assist

2017-11-05
2017-32-0084
This study focused on a non-equilibrium plasma discharge as a means of assisting HCCI combustion.Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with a spark electrode in the top of the combustion chamber for continuously generating non-equilibrium plasma from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke. The results showed that applying non-equilibrium plasma to the HCCI test engine advanced the main combustion period that otherwise tended to be delayed as the engine speed was increased. In addition, it was found that the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and non-equilibrium plasma prevented a transition to partial combustion while suppressing cylinder pressure oscillations at high loads.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0085
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

Influence of EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine Using an Optically Accessible Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0012
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of cooled recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) on abnormal combustion in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The condition of abnormal HCCI combustion accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations was photographed with a high-speed camera using a 2-stroke optically accessible engine that enabled visualization of the entire bore area. Exhaust gas was cooled with a water-cooled intercooler for introducing cooled EGR. Experiments were conducted in which the quantity of cooled EGR introduced was varied and a comparison was made of the autoignition behavior obtained under each condition in order to investigate the influence of cooled EGR on abnormal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that cylinder pressure oscillations were reduced when cooled EGR was introduced. That reduction was found to be mainly ascribable to the effect of cooled EGR on changing the ignition timing.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Journal Article

Effect of Streamer Discharge Assist on Combustion in a Supercharged HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0013
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest in recent years as a clean, high-efficiency combustion system. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in HCCI engines because they lack a physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue of HCCI engines is their narrow operating range because of misfiring that occurs at low loads and abnormal combustion at high loads. As a possible solution to these issues, this study focused on the application of a streamer discharge in the form of non-equilibrium plasma as a technique for assisting HCCI combustion. Experiments were conducted with a four-stroke single-cylinder engine fitted with an ignition electrode in the combustion chamber. A streamer discharge was continuously generated in the cylinder during a 720-degree interval from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

2015-11-17
2015-32-0770
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Combustion in an HCCI Engine Using an Alternative Fuel

2015-11-17
2015-32-0790
Internal combustion engines today are required to achieve even higher efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions. Currently, research interest is focused on premixed compression ignition (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI) combustion. However, HCCI engines have no physical means of initiating ignition such as a spark plug or the fuel injection timing and quantity. Therefore, it is difficult to control the ignition timing. In addition, combustion occurs simultaneously at multiple sites in the combustion chamber. As a result, combustion takes place extremely rapidly especially in the high load region. That makes it difficult for the engine to operate stably at high loads. This study focused on the fuel composition as a possible means to solve these problems. The effect of using fuel blends on the HCCI operating region and combustion characteristics was investigated using a single-cylinder test engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Blended Fuels of Propane and DME

2014-11-11
2014-32-0005
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion.
Journal Article

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion using In-cylinder Spectroscopic Techniques and Chemical Kinetic Calculation

2013-10-15
2013-32-9171
A great deal of interest is focused on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion today as a combustion system enabling internal combustion engines to attain higher efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions. Because the air-fuel mixture is compression-ignited in an HCCI engine, control of the ignition timing is a key issue. Additionally, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the combustion chamber, it is necessary to control the resultant rapid combustion, especially in the high-load region. Supercharging can be cited as one approach that is effective in facilitating high-load operation of HCCI engines. Supercharging increases the intake air quantity to increase the heat capacity of the working gas, thereby lowering the combustion temperature for injection of the same quantity of fuel. In this study, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supercharging on combustion characteristics in an HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Fuel Blends on Supercharged HCCI Combustion

2012-10-23
2012-32-0080
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Study on Performance of Diesel Engine Applied with Emulsified Diesel Fuel: The Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Water Contents

2011-11-08
2011-32-0606
The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
Technical Paper

A Study on Influence of Forced Over Cooling on Diesel Engine Performance

2011-11-08
2011-32-0605
The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Combustion Using Spectroscopic Measurements and Chemical Kinetic Simulations: Effects of Fuel Composition, Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure on Low-temperature Oxidation Reactions and Autoignition

2011-11-08
2011-32-0524
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Journal Article

Optical Measurement of Autoignition and Combustion Behavior in an HCCI Engine

2010-09-28
2010-32-0089
In this study, optical measurements were made of the combustion chamber gas during operation of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine in order to obtain a better understanding of the ignition and combustion characteristics. The principal issues of HCCI engines are to control the ignition timing and to optimize the combustion state following ignition. Autoignition in HCCI engines is strongly influenced by the complex low-temperature oxidation reaction process, alternatively referred to as the cool flame reaction or negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region. Accordingly, a good understanding of this low-temperature oxidation reaction process is indispensable to ignition timing control. In the experiments, spectroscopic measurement methods were applied to investigate the reaction behavior in the process leading to autoignition.
Journal Article

A Study of Ignition Characteristics of an HCCI Engine Operating on a Two-component Fuel

2010-09-28
2010-32-0098
The Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is positioned as a next-generation internal combustion engine and has been the focus of extensive research in recent years to develop a practical system. One reason is that this new combustion system achieves lower fuel consumption and simultaneous reductions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, which are major issues of internal combustion engines today. However, the characteristics of HCCI combustion can prevent suitable engine operation owing to the rapid combustion process that occurs accompanied by a steep pressure rise when the amount of fuel injected is increased to obtain higher power output. A major issue of HCCI is to control this rapid combustion so that the quantity of fuel injected can be increased for greater power. Controlling the ignition timing is also an issue because it is substantially influenced by the chemical reactions of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Application of Newly Developed Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine

2009-11-03
2009-32-0132
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. CLF was made from woods by direct liquefaction process. When neat CLF was supplied to diesel engine, the compression ignition did not occur, so that blend of CLF and diesel fuel was used. The engine could be operated when the mixing ratio of CLF was up to 35 wt%. CO, HC and NOx emissions were almost the same as those of diesel fuel when the mixing ratio of CLF was less than 20 wt% whereas the thermal efficiency slightly decreases with increase in CLF mixing ratio.
Technical Paper

Light Emission and Absorption Spectroscopic Study of HCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1846
In this study, light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process in detail, about which there have been many unclear points heretofore. The results made clear the formation behavior and wavelength bands of the chemical species produced during low-temperature reactions. Specifically, with a low level of residual gas, a light emission band was observed from a cool flame in a wavelength range of 370–470 nm. That is attributed to the light emission of formaldehyde (HCHO) produced in the cool-flame reactions. Additionally, it was found that these light emission spectra were no longer observable when residual gas was applied. The light emission spectra of the combustion flame thus indicated that residual gas has the effect of moderating cool-flame reactions.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Analysis of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-10-30
2007-32-0038
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers the advantages of high efficiency and low emissions of pollutants. However, ignition timing control and expansion of the stable operation region are issues remaining to be addressed in this combustion process. Detailed analyses of ignition and combustion characteristics are needed to resolve these issues. HCCI combustion of a low octane number fuel is characterized by two-stage heat release attributed to a cool flame and a hot flame, respectively. In this study, spectroscopic techniques were used to investigate the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on ignition and combustion characteristics using a low octane number fuel, which is apt to give rise to a cool flame. The reaction mechanism of a cool flame produces formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements were made of spontaneous light emission and absorption at wavelengths corresponding to the light emitted at the time HCHO was produced.
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