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Fuel Systems Material Selection and Compatibility with Alternative Fuels

2020-04-06
This course will introduce the participants to the factors governing fuel-material compatibility and methods to predict and empirically determine compatibility for new alternative fuel chemistries.  By understanding the mechanisms and factors associated with chemically-induced degradation, participants will be able to assess the impact of fuel chemistry to infrastructure components, including those associated with vehicle fuel systems.  This course is unique in that it looks at compatibility from a fuel chemistry perspective, especially new fuel types such as alcohols and other biofuels. 
Technical Paper

Utilization of treated waste engine oil -butanol blends as fuel for CI engine operated under an optimal engine parameters

2019-11-21
2019-28-2383
Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel to fuel diesel engine. Waste engine oil is causing land pollution and contamination to groundwater a lot. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of treated waste engine oil and butanol as fuel to diesel engine operated under optimal engine operating parameters. This study was conducted in four stages: Treating the waste engine oil; Preparation of blends and testing the properties; Arriving at an optimal injection timing, nozzle opening pressure, compression ratio, and intake air temperature to suit the possible blend of treated waste engine oil and butanol; Testing the possible blend under optimal operating parameters under various load conditions. The properties test indicated that 35% of butanol can be blended with treated engine oil with respect to the essential properties for fueling diesel engine. To optimize the parameters L16 orthogonal array with the Taguchi method was used.
Technical Paper

Bio diesel-an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2385
Currently Automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of Conventional fuels. Bio diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Bio diesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Bio diesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

CNG injector performance analysis against variation of physical and electrical parameters: An alternate fuel approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2389
Authors: Udit Kaul, Mahendarpal and Madhusudan Joshi Organization: International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: In this paper, a study concerning multi-point CNG injectors (MPCI) or commonly known as injector rail would be presented. Here we would make a detailed analysis regarding the performance of MPCIs due to variation in physical and electrical parameters. In this case multiple MPCIs would be considered and there electrical and dimension parameters would be compared with respect to their performance. The performance comparison would be done based on the common compliance standard under standard laboratory conditions. We would also like to propose the optimal combination of electrical and dimension parameters for better performance. The variables to be considered for the proposed study are: injector valve open/shut timing, injector dimension, voltage levels, solenoid types etc. Key words : multi-point CNG injectors, injector valve, solenoid
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Solar charging stations for Indian conditions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2484
Electric mobility is the future of tomorrows transport both in the public and private sector. One of the major challenges / issues faced by the electric vehicles is increased time duration of charging. Research classifies Electric Vehicle Charging into level 1, 2, 3 & DC fast charging. Slowest mode being level 1 which needs 120V / 15A, while Level 3 and fast DC charging are faster modes where in less time duration are required for battery charging. In this research a model of solar charging station was analysed for the Indian condition. Analysis indicate that Level 3 and fast DC charging are preferred where in commercial vehicles whereas Level one and 2 are suitable for vehicles that are used for limited periods. An analysis of solar energy as a source of power to charging stations is also made.
Technical Paper

Noise & Vibration challenges in an Electric Vehicle (Bus), its effect and possible reduction techniques

2019-11-21
2019-28-2493
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Noise and Vibrations is a vast field of study and has been a constant challenge to Acousticians and designers. IC engines have been in existence since almost 125 years and have given enough room & time to acousticians and engineers to develop materials and tune powertrains to minimize Noise and Vibrations from vehicles. With the advent of technology to evolve alternate fueled powertrains to reduce emissions emitted by IC engines, lot of research is being carried out to develop powertrains particularly in the area of Hybrids & Electrics. Substantial investments are being made by OEMs worldwide on researching xEV domain to tap new motor/ battery technologies for vehicles. Since the technology in xEVs is majorly different, the problems associated with them are also different.
Technical Paper

Modeling for collective effect of Muffler geometric modifications and blended microalgae fuel use on exhaust performance of a four-stroke diesel engine: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2377
Engine performance significantly depends on the effective exhaust of the combustion gases from the muffler. With stricter BSVI norms more efficient measures has to be adopted to reduce the levels of exhaust emissions from the exhaust to the atmosphere. Muffler along with reducing the engine noise, is intended to control the back pressure as well. Back pressure change has significant effect on muffler temperature distribution which affects the NOx emission from the exhaust. Many research communications have been made to reduce the exhaust emissions like HC, CO and CO2 from the exhaust by using different generation biofuels as alternate fuel, yet they have confronted challenges in controlling the NOx content from exhaust. This work presents the combined effect of Muffler geometry modifications and blended microalgal fuel on exhaust performance with an aim to reduce NOx emission from the exhaust of a four-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for its Performance and Emission Characteristics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2375
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus Colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like ATB10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), ATB20, ATB30 and ATB40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.
Technical Paper

Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

2019-11-21
2019-28-2384
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE USING BLENDS OF ETHYL ESTER OF JATROPHA OIL AND ETHANOL

2019-11-21
2019-28-2378
The need of Diesel as fuel has greatly pressurized the now scarcely available natural resources and is likely to become a luxury for the future generations. This paper aims at finding an alternate for diesel that can hopefully reduce the pressure on its existing demand. This paper presents a comparative study on use of different blends of Jatropha Oil (J) and Ethanol (E) as fuel in a diesel engine to observe its performance and emission characteristics. The findings are later compared with corresponding values of neat Diesel as fuel. Since Jatropha oil is more viscous and has polyunsaturated characteristics in its natural form, its ethyl ester was produced by transesterification process and later blended with Ethanol in different proportions like 90% J 10%E, 80J-20E, 70J-30E and 60J-40E.
Technical Paper

A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

2019-11-21
2019-28-2386
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

2019-11-21
2019-28-2396
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9% .
Technical Paper

Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2511
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset.
Technical Paper

Compensation of Signal Offset, Amplitude Imbalance and Imperfect Quadrature in Rotor Position Sensor Signals for Motor Drives

2019-11-21
2019-28-2524
In recent years, the use of the electric motors in automotive applications such as electric power steering (EPS), hybrid and electric vehicles has increased. In these fields, rotor position information plays and important role in the field- oriented control concept. It performs a transformation from the stator reference frame to the rotor reference frame and vice versa. This is nothing but the Park and inverse Park transformation. They are typically used to provide accurate absolute rotor position in high-performance motor drive systems because their robustness and reliability make them particularly suited to Automotive Environment. Hence, greater accuracy of these sensor signals is required. However, in reality, the output signals include the position error in the sensor itself as well as error in the sensor signal conditioning circuits.
Technical Paper

Electric Commercial Vehicles And Charging Solutions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2476
Objective : Objective of the paper is to acquaint the audience with the concept of electric vehicles, Powertrain components used in an electric bus, Siemens contribution to the field of Electromobility, Typical configurations used in an electric bus, challenges and current limitations, emerging Technologies, future, how to address the future charging infra requirement. Methodology : The subject shall be discussed with the audience through a presentation coupled with Explanation by the presenter. The topic shall be opened with the concept of electromobility followed By history of electromobility at Siemens, contribution to the field of electro mobility, typical configurations of electric vehicles, Advantages of electric vehicles vis a vis conventional diesel buses, typical configurations of an electric bus, feasibility of electric buses for various transport services. Comparison of induction motor Vs.
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