Engine performance significantly depends on the effective exhaust of the combustion gases from the muffler. With stricter BSVI norms more efficient measures has to be adopted to reduce the levels of exhaust emissions from the exhaust to the atmosphere. Muffler along with reducing the engine noise, is intended to control the back pressure as well. Back pressure change has significant effect on muffler temperature distribution which affects the NOx emission from the exhaust. Many research communications have been made to reduce the exhaust emissions like HC, CO and CO2 from the exhaust by using different generation biofuels as alternate fuel, yet they have confronted challenges in controlling the NOx content from exhaust. This work presents the combined effect of Muffler geometry modifications and blended microalgal fuel on exhaust performance with an aim to reduce NOx emission from the exhaust of a four-stroke engine.
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus Colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like ATB10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), ATB20, ATB30 and ATB40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission.
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
The Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction (DPNR) system is used for simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx in diesel engine. DPF is used to trap particulate matter in diesel engines. NOx absorber technology removes NOx in a lean (i.e. oxygen rich) exhaust environment for both diesel and gasoline lean-burn GDI engines. The NOx storage and reduction catalyst is uniformly coated on the wall surface and in the fine pores of a highly porous filter substrate. Combination of these two components in the DPNR results in a compact size of the system. The base diesel engine model validated with pressure crank angle diagram and performance parameters such as Indicated mean effective pressure. This base engine’s exhaust emission is given as an input to the DPNR system. The surface reaction is connected to the DPF through chemcon template. The surface reaction is NOx storage and reduction chemical kinetics like Lean NOx Trap. The modelling of DPNR and Base engine is done using GT-SUITE.
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages.
The scope of this document focuses on the tests required by EPA to validate the performance of the FTIR system following the section in the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065 (40CFR1U.1065 and hereafter referred to as “EPA Part 1065”) on the guidelines and performance criteria for various regulated gases. This document focuses on the use of continuous emissions sampling for both Engine and Vehicle testing. Future addenda will be needed to cover bag and other sampling techniques. Gas components that do not currently have performance criteria but may soon be regulated are noted and EPA suggestions as to what should be required are applied. This will help ensure that the FTIR will be recognized as a valid and alternative tool for engine exhaust emissions testing. Components in engine exhaust that are specifically called out in this document include: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO2 and N2O), ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), and formaldehyde (H2CO).
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement by using a low viscous bio oil, RH (rice husk) nano particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel is its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (pine oil) which does not need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. Further, to improve its characteristics a non-metallic nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100 ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (hydrocarbon)-34.8%, Smoke-31.6%, CO (carbon monoxide)-43.7%. On the contrary, NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values.
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the minimum performance requirements for an angle of attack (AOA) system. This document covers two basic AOA Systems. One measures airflow and pressure distribution on the airfoil, and the other measures the angle of airflow with respect to an arbitrary reference line. Each type of system includes, as a minimum, a sensor and a display to the pilot representative of the aircraft's AOA.
The present study was carried out to analyze the catalytic action of K2O-Al2O3 in NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) monolith catalyst and Fe2O3-TiO2 in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) monolith catalyst. The core objective of this investigation is to determine the maximum percentage of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction in NSR and NSR-SCR combined system with respect to engine exhaust gas temperature and compares the results with the results of the conventional mode of operation. To accomplish this task monolith ceramic bricks were coated with K2O-Al2O3 (NSR) and Fe2O3-TiO2 (SCR) catalyst and were placed in different configurations inside the catalytic chamber. Several trials were attempted to get the optimal operating temperature that has a maximum NOx removal efficiency when successively connecting a single NSR catalyst and the combined NSR-SCR double bed catalyst. Single NSR monolith at 320 °C, showed the best NOx conversion rate of 74%.
In this experimental study, combustion, performance & emission characteristics of a single cylinder D.I. diesel engine is analyzed using lemon grass oil and diesel blend B20. The alumina (Al2O3) nano-particles of 10, 20 and 30 parts per million (B20A10, B20A20, B20A30) are assorted with prepared fuel blend through an ultrasonicator which would help to fetch an unvarying suspension of nano-particles over the blend fuel. SEM analysis and X-ray diffraction have been done for the alumina nano-particles to test the size of the particles that are blended to the bio-fuel blends. The chemical reactivity and rate of mixing are better though the characteristics of nano-particles exhibit high exterior area/capacity ratio during combustion that ultimately results in good characteristics of a diesel engine. Among test fuels, B20A20 shows healthier performance both in relationships of efficiency & emissions such as Nitrous oxide (NOx), hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Smoke.
Utilization of diesel is augmented consistently by transportation and industrial sectors which is making its existence obsolete in near future. Tremendous research has been done by many researchers to find an appropriate alternative for diesel fuel, in this scenario abundant acquisition of plastic wastes and their improper retreating techniques has grabbed the attention of researchers to convert them into alternative fuel for IC engines. This experimental investigation aims to study the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of common rail direct injection (CRDI) fuelled with waste plastic oil and diesel blends at different injection strategies and at various loading conditions. From the results it is noticed that slight decline in the thermal efficiency of the engine when operated with waste plastic oil (100%) due to high viscosity and lower heating value. There was a momentous diminishment in NOx emissions for low injection pressures of plastic diesel blend (P30).
Engine in-cylinder flow structure governs the combustion process and directly influences emission formation and fuel consumption at the source. In naturally aspirated DI diesel engine, combustion process coupled with low pressure mechanical fuel injection systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In-cylinder swirl needs to be optimized for efficient combustion to meet emission levels and fuel consumption targets. Thus, intake port design optimization process becomes a vital requirement. In the present paper intake port design optimization is carried out for single cylinder naturally aspirated engine using mechanical fuel injection systems. The objective is to investigate in-cylinder flow field developed by intake port designs, study the effects of geometrical details of various port cross sections on flow velocity and pressure fields and establish a relationship with intake port performance parameters i.e. swirl and flow coefficient.
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine.
Increasing of automatic transmissions in passenger cars is based on pleasure of driving, smooth acceleration and easy operation makes the customer satisfaction. Challenges beyond 2020 is BS VI emission norms in India - a very tough goals on CO2& NOx reduction in Gasoline & Diesel vehicles. But its setback in lower fuel economy. To support & enhance fuel economy in Automatic transmissions as part of drivetrain technologies, this article discusses about the power losses in torque converters and experiments on the actual Automatic transmission (AT) vehicle on-road to understand the real city driving behavior in the aspects of gear utilization & gas pedal utilization throughout the entire traffic conditions. With that data research, slip area and slipping conditions is determined & clutch slip control is enabled at area in torque converter by ensuring that NVH parameters are not affected.