In current automobile market, due to the need of meeting future CO2 limits and emission standards, demand for hybrid systems is on the rise. In general, the requirements of modern automobile architecture demands modular chassis structure to develop vehicle variants using minimum platforms. The multi-link modular suspension system provides ideal solution to achieve these targets. To match ideal stiffness characteristics of system with minimum weight, aluminum links are proving a good alternative to conventional steel forged or stamped linkages. Design of current 2-point link (Upper Control Arm) is based on elasto-kinematic model developed using standard load cases from multi body dynamics. CAD system used is CATIA V5 to design upper control arm for rear suspension. This arm connects steering knuckle & rear sub frame. For Finite Element Analysis we used Hyperworks CAE tool to analyze design under all load cased & further optimization is done to resolve highly stressed zones.
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend.
In recent years, the use of the electric motors in automotive applications such as electric power steering (EPS), hybrid and electric vehicles has increased. In these fields, rotor position information plays and important role in the field- oriented control concept. It performs a transformation from the stator reference frame to the rotor reference frame and vice versa. This is nothing but the Park and inverse Park transformation. They are typically used to provide accurate absolute rotor position in high-performance motor drive systems because their robustness and reliability make them particularly suited to Automotive Environment. Hence, greater accuracy of these sensor signals is required. However, in reality, the output signals include the position error in the sensor itself as well as error in the sensor signal conditioning circuits.
A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck C.Venkatesh - Manager - Product Development, Sustainable Mobility & Advanced Technologies Abstract: A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle Abstract: Today's growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors are very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. Hence the hydrogen fuel cell based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long range, zero emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement. The hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders.
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Noise and Vibrations is a vast field of study and has been a constant challenge to Acousticians and designers. IC engines have been in existence since almost 125 years and have given enough room & time to acousticians and engineers to develop materials and tune powertrains to minimize Noise and Vibrations from vehicles. With the advent of technology to evolve alternate fueled powertrains to reduce emissions emitted by IC engines, lot of research is being carried out to develop powertrains particularly in the area of Hybrids & Electrics. Substantial investments are being made by OEMs worldwide on researching xEV domain to tap new motor/ battery technologies for vehicles. Since the technology in xEVs is majorly different, the problems associated with them are also different.
Electric mobility is the future of tomorrows transport both in the public and private sector. One of the major challenges / issues faced by the electric vehicles is increased time duration of charging. Research classifies Electric Vehicle Charging into level 1, 2, 3 & DC fast charging. Slowest mode being level 1 which needs 120V / 15A, while Level 3 and fast DC charging are faster modes where in less time duration are required for battery charging. In this research a model of solar charging station was analysed for the Indian condition. Analysis indicate that Level 3 and fast DC charging are preferred where in commercial vehicles whereas Level one and 2 are suitable for vehicles that are used for limited periods. An analysis of solar energy as a source of power to charging stations is also made.
Objective : Objective of the paper is to acquaint the audience with the concept of electric vehicles, Powertrain components used in an electric bus, Siemens contribution to the field of Electromobility, Typical configurations used in an electric bus, challenges and current limitations, emerging Technologies, future, how to address the future charging infra requirement. Methodology : The subject shall be discussed with the audience through a presentation coupled with Explanation by the presenter. The topic shall be opened with the concept of electromobility followed By history of electromobility at Siemens, contribution to the field of electro mobility, typical configurations of electric vehicles, Advantages of electric vehicles vis a vis conventional diesel buses, typical configurations of an electric bus, feasibility of electric buses for various transport services. Comparison of induction motor Vs.
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Authors: Udit Kaul, Mahendarpal and Madhusudan Joshi Organization: International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: In this paper, a study concerning multi-point CNG injectors (MPCI) or commonly known as injector rail would be presented. Here we would make a detailed analysis regarding the performance of MPCIs due to variation in physical and electrical parameters. In this case multiple MPCIs would be considered and there electrical and dimension parameters would be compared with respect to their performance. The performance comparison would be done based on the common compliance standard under standard laboratory conditions. We would also like to propose the optimal combination of electrical and dimension parameters for better performance. The variables to be considered for the proposed study are: injector valve open/shut timing, injector dimension, voltage levels, solenoid types etc. Key words : multi-point CNG injectors, injector valve, solenoid
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel to fuel diesel engine. Waste engine oil is causing land pollution and contamination to groundwater a lot. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of treated waste engine oil and butanol as fuel to diesel engine operated under optimal engine operating parameters. This study was conducted in four stages: Treating the waste engine oil; Preparation of blends and testing the properties; Arriving at an optimal injection timing, nozzle opening pressure, compression ratio, and intake air temperature to suit the possible blend of treated waste engine oil and butanol; Testing the possible blend under optimal operating parameters under various load conditions. The properties test indicated that 35% of butanol can be blended with treated engine oil with respect to the essential properties for fueling diesel engine. To optimize the parameters L16 orthogonal array with the Taguchi method was used.
Currently Automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of Conventional fuels. Bio diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Bio diesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Bio diesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Biodiesel can supplement petroleum product as a "perfect vitality source". It can ensure nature by diminishing CO2, SO2, CO, HC emission to an extent. The carbon cycle of Biodiesel is dynamic through the photosynthesis procedure .Plants ingest CO2, or, in other words those released by the biodiesel ignition process. Utilizing biodiesel can all the more adequately lessen the outflow of CO2, secure the indigenous habitat and keep up the environmental equalization, contrasted with the utilization of petroleum product. This paper considers the issues and gives understanding on the utilization of bio diesel in existing passenger vehicles which runs on diesel as a fuel. Because of increment in use of non-renewable energy sources viz., petroleum products are on an exponential decline. Today we have an option of electric vehicle or fuel cell based vehicles but what about the existing infrastructures of Billions of vehicles plying on Indian road. Bio diesel as a fuel solves this issue.
Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Adaptation of Bio diesel comes with reduced maintainability and high maintenance cost. Blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel are most commonly used in automotive diesel engines. Biodiesel is most popular choice as an alternate fuel of fossil diesel due to its easy availability, eco-friendly nature and minimum change in existing diesel engine for retro fitment. In this paper efforts have been taken to optimize the life of Fuel filter for bio diesel application. For improving Fuel filter life, modifications carried out in Fuel filter media, size and configuration. Further, Fuel filter tested on Engine test bed and Vehicle to establish the life of filter in real world usage condition. Testing Results were compared with existing diesel fuel filter.
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Indian automotive industry has witnessed never-seen-before push towards Green mobility from the Government of India (GOI). GOI has maintained a firm stature while leap-frogging from BS-IV to BS-VI and has backed up its intent with equally firm actions of providing the facilities, infrastructure and necessary support to industry. After a lot of initial resistance, the Auto manufacturers have taken up the challenge and are well paced towards meeting the target of 1st April, 2020. Due to many aspects such as commercial viability, wide range of expectation from different type of customer segments e.g. 2-wheeler, 3-wheelers, SCV, Light & MHCV and passenger car segments etc. the overall landscape of market in terms of product segmentation, Diesel-Petrol share pattern is poised to change. Parallel to this development, a wave of electric vehicle enthusiasts has hit the world which boasts of being the ultimate solution towards Green mobility.
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards.