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Technical Paper

Optimization of CI Engine Performance and Emissions Fueled by Blends of Alternative Fuels Methyl Ester Using Taguchi and Multi Regression Analysis

2019-09-16
2019-01-1893
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to improve the performance and reduce emission using alternative fuel while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the Present study, to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons (HC) etc..
Technical Paper

Scavenged Pre-Chamber Volume Effect on Gas Engine Performance and Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0258
This work presents development and results of experimental and numerical investigations of an advanced ignition system with a scavenged pre-chamber for a natural gas fueled engine with a bore of 102 mm and stroke of 120 mm. Two combustion concepts are taken into account. The lean burn concept is used to minimize engine out emissions of nitric oxides (NOx) and to achieve high thermal efficiency at low load. The in-house designed scavenged pre-chamber enables the engine to be operated up to the air-excess ratio (lambda) of 2. A stoichiometric (lambda=1) operation is also possible. It is compatible with a three-way catalyst concept, at high load and potentially transient modes and can provide as high as possible engine power density. The influence of the scavenged pre-chamber volume on the combustion and performance within the range of the operational points of the naturally aspirated engine is presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Effects of Compression Ratio and Water Vapor Induction on the Achievable Load Limits of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Operated in HCCI Mode

2019-04-02
2019-01-0962
Among the various Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is most promising to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions owing to higher degree of homogeneity and elimination of diffusion phase combustion. However, one of its major limitations include a very narrow operating load range owing to misfire at low loads and knocking at high loads. Implementing HCCI in small light duty air cooled diesel engines pose challenges to eliminate misfire and knocking problems owing to lower power output and air cooled operation, respectively. In the present work, experimental investigations are done in HCCI mode in one such light duty production diesel engine most widely used in agricultural water pumping applications. An external mixture preparation based diesel HCCI is implemented in the test engine by utilizing a high-pressure port fuel injection system, a fuel vaporizer and an air preheater.
Technical Paper

Development of a Natural Gas Engine with Diesel Engine-like Efficiency Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0225
Present day natural gas engines have a significant efficiency disadvantage but benefit with low carbon-dioxide emissions and cheap three-way catalysis aftertreatment. The aim of this work is to improve the efficiency of a natural gas engine on par with a diesel engine. A Cummins-Westport ISX12-G (diesel) engine is used for the study. A baseline model is validated in three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The challenge of this project is adapting the diesel engine for the natural gas fuel, so that the increased squish area of the diesel engine piston can be used to accomplish faster natural gas burn rates. A further increase efficiency is achieved by switching to D-EGR technology. D-EGR is a concept where one or more cylinders are run with excess fueling and its exhaust stream, containing H2 and CO, is cooled and fed into the intake stream. With D-EGR although there is an in-cylinder presence of a reactive H2-CO reformate, there is also higher levels of dilution.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Diesel Engine Calibration Using a Novel SVM-PSO Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0542
Accelerated computational optimization of a diesel engine calibration was achieved by combining Support Vector Regression models with the Particle Swarm Optimization routine. The framework utilized a full engine simulation as a surrogate for a real engine test with test parameters closely resembling a typical 4.5L diesel engine. Initial tests were run with multi-modal test problems including Rastragin's, Bukin's, Ackely's, and Schubert's functions which informed the ML model tuning hyper-parameters. To improve the performance of the engine the hybrid approach was used to optimize the Fuel Pressure, Injection Timing, Pilot Timing and Fraction, and EGR rate. Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Specific Fuel Consumption are simultaneously reduced. As expected, optimums reflect a late injection strategy with moderately high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Skip Fire Applied to a Diesel Engine for Improved Fuel Consumption and Emissions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0549
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) is an advanced cylinder deactivation technology where the decision to fire or skip a singular cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine is made immediately prior to each firing opportunity. A DSF-equipped engine features the ability to selectively deactivate cylinders on a cylinder event-by-event basis in order to match the requested torque demand at optimum fuel efficiency while maintaining acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) has already shown significant fuel economy improvements for throttled spark-ignition engines. This paper explores the potential benefits of DSF technology in improving fuel economy while maintaining ultra-low tailpipe emissions for light-duty (LD) Diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

High-Load Compression-Ignition Engine Emissions Reduction with Inverted Phi-Sensitivity Fuel Using Multiple Injection Strategies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0554
Inverted phi (ϕ)-sensitivity is a new approach of NOx reduction in compression-ignition (C.I.) engines. Previously, pure ethanol (E100) was selected as the preliminary test fuel in a single injection compression-ignition engine, and was shown to have good potential for low engine-out NOx emissions under low and medium load conditions due to its inverted ignition sequence. Under high load, however, the near-stoichiometric and non-homogeneous fuel/air distribution removes the effectiveness of the inverted ϕ-sensitivity. Therefore, it is desirable to recover the combustion sequence in the chamber such that the leaner region is burned before the near-stoichiometric region. When the combustion in near-stoichiometric region is inhibited, the temperature rise of that region is hindered and the formation of NOx is suppressed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Fuel Additive on Performance, Combustion, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Karanja and Jatropha Biodiesel in a Military 585 kW CIDI Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0262
Rapid depletion of petroleum reserves, stringent emission legislations and global warming has given us an opportunity to find biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is a biogradable, renewable, sulphur free, non-toxic, and oxygenated green fuel. Recent emission legislations have also restricted the nano particles emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non-edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatropha oil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by the process of transesterification. Biodiesel emits lesser gaseous emission as compared to diesel fuel. However, the only major concern in the use of biodiesel is that it increases NOx emission. Nano particle fuel additive is one of the essential techniques to overcome the NOx emission drawback of biodiesel.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Displacement on Efficiency Loss Pathways in a Highly Dilute Jet Ignition Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0330
Internal combustion engines currently face increasing regulatory reform which has motivated investigation of alternative combustion modes, particularly for spark ignition engines. Fuel economy regulations, among others, are presently driving the need for technological advances in the automotive sector. Stationary power generation is facing emissions standards that will be increasingly difficult to achieve with combustion-based current practices, particularly in the case of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Ultra-lean (λ > ~1.6; air-fuel ratio > 23:1) combustion via air dilution is one such combustion mode that provides the benefits of reduced fuel consumption and reduced NOx emissions. Jet ignition is a pre-chamber-based combustion system that enables enleanment beyond what is achievable with traditional spark ignition engines. Previous studies of MAHLE’s Jet Ignition® concept have primarily focused on light-duty gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Research on Emission Control Technology of Low-Speed Two-Stroke Diesel Engine Based on EGR and Miller Cycle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0945
This paper investigates the influences of EGR and Miller cycle on NOx emission of a heavy-duty two-stroke diesel engine. The NOx emission is strictly restricted by the IMO Tier III Emission Regulations, resulting in an insufficient application of the single emission reduction technology to meet the emission requirements. It is asserted that EGR is the most effective manner to reduce NOx emission, but the fuel consumption increases simultaneously. In consideration of emission reduction with fuel economy, EGR and Miller cycle were combined and studied in this paper. Parameters like in-cylinder pressure, in-cylinder temperature, mass in the chamber, emission (NOx and soot) and fuel consumption rate were investigated based on a single-cylinder 3D model. The wet condition that happens in the engine application was considered in the model development process. The model was validated and compared with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations to Extend the Load Range of Premixed Charge Compression Ignited Light Duty Diesel Engine through Fuel Modifications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0953
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions along with higher thermal efficiency. One of the major problems in diesel PCCI is a narrow operating load range because of very early ignition and knocking combustion at higher loads owing to higher reactivity of diesel fuel. Further, low volatile diesel resist vaporization, resulting in fuel spray wall wetting and higher unburned emissions in PCCI. Thus, high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel make it not suitable for PCCI combustion. The present work attempts to address these limitations, by blending diesel with high volatile and low reactive fuels, viz. gasoline and butanol at 10% and 20% blend levels by volume.
Technical Paper

The Application of Controlled Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engines -The Challenges and Solutions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0949
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to simultaneously reduce the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emissions of gasoline engines. However, narrow operating region in loads and speeds is one of the challenges for the commercial application of CAI combustion to gasoline engines. Therefore, the extension of loads and speeds is an important prerequisite for the commercial application of CAI combustion. The effect of intake charge boosting, charge stratification and spark-assisted ignition on the operating range in CAI mode was reviewed. Stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion is one form to achieve CAI combustion under the conditions of highly diluted mixture caused by the flame in the stratified mixture with the help of spark plug.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation Investigation of Working Process and Emissions on GDI Engine Fueled with Hydrous Ethanol Gasoline Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0219
Compared with ordinary gasoline, using ethanol gasoline blends as fuel of Internal Combustion Engine is beneficial for the performance of power, economy and emission of engine. However, the fuel ethanol blended in ethanol gasoline blends currently is usually anhydrous ethanol, which requires dewatering implementer in production process, and the cost is high. Therefore, the production cost can be significantly reduced by replacement of anhydrous ethanol with hydrous ethanol while exerting the advantage of ethanol gasoline blends. In this study, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software CONVERGE is employed to establish a simulation model of an actual gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, and investigate the effect of burning hydrous ethanol gasoline blends and different injection strategy on combustion process and emission, and the validity of the model was validated by experiments.
Technical Paper

The Emission of a Diesel Engine in Different Coolant Temperature during Cold Start at High Altitude

2019-04-02
2019-01-0730
Emissions of diesel engine have been received much more attention since the Volkswagen Emission Scandal. The Euro VI emission standard has already included cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles which is one of the hardest part of emission control. High altitude performance is also considered in the latest regulations which will be stricter in the future. Heating the coolant is one of the most common method to improve the cold start performance. But researches focus on the emission of a diesel engine in different coolant temperature at high altitude which up to 4500m have not been seen. The present research investigated the effect of coolant temperature on performance and exhaust emissions (gaseous and particulate emissions) during the cold start of a diesel engine. A plateau simulation system controlled the inlet and exhaust pressure to create altitude environments from 0m to 4500m, and the coolant temperature was controlled from 20°C to 60°C.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the Emission Characteristics of the CI Engine Fuelled by Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) Diesel Blends

2019-04-02
2019-01-0748
The power generation, agriculture, and transportation sectors are dominated by diesel engines due to better thermal efficiency and durability. Diesel engines are also a major contributor to the air pollutants such as NOx and particulate matter. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is considered a promising alternative fuel as it emits less pollutants compared to conventional fuels. In current work, the ABE used was of the ratio (3:6:1) and four samples were prepared for engine trial ABE (10%90%diesel), ABE (20%80%diesel), ABE (30%70%diesel) and ABE (40%60%diesel). Their physio-chemical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity and calorific value were checked and tested on compression ignition engine at different operating parameters. The experimental work was conducted upon Kirloskar 4-stroke single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled 661cc compression ignition engine at different speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Intake Manifold Water Injection on Characteristics of Combustion and Emissions in a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0562
The performances of heavy-duty natural gas engines have been limited by combustion temperature and NOx emissions for a long time. Recently, water injection technology has been widely considered as a technical solution in reducing fuel consumption and emissions simultaneously in both gasoline and diesel engines. This paper focuses on the impacts of intake manifold water injection on characteristics of combustion and emissions in a natural gas heavy-duty engine through numerical methods. A computational model was setup and validated with experimental data of pressure traces in a CFD software coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The simulation was mainly carried out in low-speed and full-load conditions, and knock level was also measured and calculated by maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO).
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engine for Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long-Haul Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0565
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, could play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines could fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high emissions. In this paper we analyze the potential for a flex fuel gasoline-alcohol engine approach for a series hybrid powertrain. In this approach the engine would provide comparable (or possibly greater) efficiency than a diesel engine while also providing 90 around lower NOx emissions than present cleanest diesel engine vehicles. Ethanol or methanol would be employed to increase knock resistance.
Technical Paper

A Dual Fuel Hydrogen - Diesel Compression Ignition Engine and Its Potential Application in Road Transport

2019-04-02
2019-01-0564
In this paper investigations of hydrogen use as a main fuel for a compression ignition engine with pilot injection of diesel fuel will be presented. The experiments were performed in steady state conditions on a single cylinder research compression ignition engine with a bore of 85 mm and piston stroke of 90 mm, coupled with an electric dynamometer. The diesel engine with optimized compression ratio was equipped with a diesel fuel direct injection common rail system. A homogeneous mixture of air and hydrogen was formed using a port fuel injection. The influence of hydrogen share on total fuel energy was systematically investigated between limits given by the pure diesel operation and up to a maximum hydrogen share, reaching 98% by energy. The tested hydrogen share was constrained by practical limits at various loads between 4 and 16 bar of IMEP with simulation of the real turbocharger performance and at three engine speeds.
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