Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Noise Emitted by vehicle on an External Pass-By Noise Track and Indoor Anechoic Chamber

2019-11-21
2019-28-2425
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel using statistical methods

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2560
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Affect of Tyre inflation on Rolling Resistance of Tyre

2019-11-21
2019-28-2415
Rolling resistance refers to the various forms of resistance against driving force when the vehicle is in motion. Several factors contribute to rolling resistance, including wind drag on the car, acceleration resistance generated by inertia force when speeding up, and resistance on the tyres. Tyre inflation pressure plays vital role on Coefficient of Rolling Resistance (RRC) of Tyre consequently vehicle mileage. Low or High tyre pressure is not good for driving comfort, safety of vehicle well as for environment. Petroleum Conservation Research Association ( PCRA ) has taken good initiative in direction to Tyre Star marking based on RRC values of Tyre.
Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2019-11-11
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Passenger Evacuation and Safety System for case of Crash and Drowning

2019-10-28
2019-01-2606
Vehicle submersion has one of the most astounding casualty rates of a solitary vehicle mischance and, as per drowning statistics from the World Health Organization, may contribute up to 2,000– 5,000 lives annually when all of the industrialized countries are considered. The system which will aid passengers in evacuating in scenario of drowning. The vehicle safety system will facilitate the passengers if a vehicle is submersed in water by untying the seat belt and lowering the window. The setup will have a circuit independent to the main automotive circuit and will consist of an array of 4 pressure sensors whose distance will be predetermined and will be placed in such a way that if the vehicle falls in any way possible, the pressure sensors sense the data. The system will also have a water sensor placed at the engine compartment, as at this position the water comes at a very early stage in a case of vehicle drowning and very unlikely during other case for example washing or raining.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Combined Outcome of Rice Husk Nano Additive and Water Injection Method on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characters of the Low Viscous Pine Oil in a Diesel Engine

2019-10-28
2019-01-2604
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement of using a low viscous bio oil, RH (Rice Husk) Nano Particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel was its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (Pine oil) which doesn’t need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. To further improve its characteristics a non-metallic Nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (Hydrocarbon), Smoke, CO (Carbon monoxide). On the contrary NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values.
Technical Paper

Investigation in Bonding Conditions of CF/Epoxy – PP Hybrid Structures Manufactured by Hybrid Single Shot Method

2019-10-28
2019-01-2595
The hybrid single shot method is a novel manufacturing technique which allows to form and bond CF/Epoxy sheet with the injected thermoplastic in a single injection process. This process is promising to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional hybrid structure manufacturing methods by reducing the cycle time, energy consumption, tool, and machinery cost which are the concerns of automakers. In this process, polypropylene (PP) injected over the pre-heated CF/Epoxy prepreg insert. PP is widely used in automotive applications such as bumpers, dashboards, side-sills while CF/Epoxy prepreg has a great potential to enhance the mechanical properties of the hybrid component. Insert material is formed by the pressure of PP and bonded with the thermoplastic part by taking the advantages of polymer heat and the tackiness of prepreg. The final part is promising to combine the inherent properties of these two material while enhancing their weaknesses.
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2019-09-20
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed.

2019-09-16
2019-01-1905
In this study, we focus on an electric air-cycle system in an electric aircraft, where the system has an electric compressor instead of a hydraulically-operated oil-based compressor. The electric compressor consumes the power to compress the rarefied air outside and take it in the system. The air goes through the air-cycle as a working fluid to exchange the heat and work. The main purpose of the air-cycle is to adjust the temperature and pressure in a cabin. Therefore, the working fluid of the air repeats compression and expansion. The working fluid passing through the cabin absorbs heat from the passengers and avionics. After that, the air is discharged outside with higher heat level and pressure levels. This means that the discharged air has a potential energy to recover the power consumption in the electric compressor.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Coupling System of Aircraft Environmental Control and Fuel Tank Inerting Based on Membrane Separation

2019-09-16
2019-01-1895
This paper raises a coupling system of aircraft environmental control and fuel tank inerting based on membrane separation. The system applies a membrane dehumidifier to replace water vapor removal unit of heat regenerator, condenser and water separator, which is widely used in conventional aircraft environmental control system nowadays. Water vapor can travel across the membrane wall under its pressure difference without phase change, so the dehumidification process consumes no cooling capacity and the cooling capacity of the system increases. This paper first compares the thermodynamic properties of environmental control system based on membrane dehumidification and the environmental control system based on condensation. The results show that the membrane dehumidification system has bigger cooling capacity and lighter weight.
Technical Paper

Optical spray investigations on OME3-5 in a constant volume high pressure chamber

2019-09-15
2019-24-0234
Synthetic fuels generated with surplus renewable electricity, water and captured CO2, so called E-fuels, offer the possibility to easily store excess energy over long periods of time. Therefore, the ALIGN-CCUS-project seeks to use them for power-generation and as a fuel for the transport-sector. Polyoxymethylene-dimethyl-ethers (POMDMEs, short: OME) are promising E-fuels for passenger-car applications. Their molecular structure is CH3-O-(CH2O)n-CH3. For passenger-car applications, OME-mixtures with n between 3 and 5 seem most suitable, as the mixture is liquid under normal ambient conditions, offers a high cetane-number and sufficient lubricity. Their high flash-point, low toxicity and good miscibility with conventional diesel-fuel also may ease their market-introduction.
Technical Paper

Effects of prechamber on efficiency improvement and emissions reduction of a SI engine fuelled with gasoline and CNG

2019-09-15
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in an real small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with Gasoline and CNG and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. In particular, Gasoline and CNG were used to analyze the effects of the prechamber on engine performance and associated pollutant emissions. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Mass Burned Fraction were used to evaluate the effects on engine performance. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed.
X