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Training / Education

Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends

2020-06-16
Turbocharging is rapidly becoming an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, it is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This web seminar will discuss the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. The course will explore the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Training / Education

Combustion and Emissions for Engineers

2019-12-09
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Technical Paper

Compensation of Signal Offset, Amplitude Imbalance and Imperfect Quadrature in Rotor Position Sensor Signals for Motor Drives

2019-11-21
2019-28-2524
In recent years, the use of the electric motors in automotive applications such as electric power steering (EPS), hybrid and electric vehicles has increased. In these fields, rotor position information plays and important role in the field- oriented control concept. It performs a transformation from the stator reference frame to the rotor reference frame and vice versa. This is nothing but the Park and inverse Park transformation. They are typically used to provide accurate absolute rotor position in high-performance motor drive systems because their robustness and reliability make them particularly suited to Automotive Environment. Hence, greater accuracy of these sensor signals is required. However, in reality, the output signals include the position error in the sensor itself as well as error in the sensor signal conditioning circuits.
Technical Paper

Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2511
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset.
Technical Paper

A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck

2019-11-21
2019-28-2514
A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric truck C.Venkatesh - Manager - Product Development, Sustainable Mobility & Advanced Technologies Abstract: A novel approach on range prediction of a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle Abstract: Today's growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors are very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. Hence the hydrogen fuel cell based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long range, zero emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement. The hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle Controller by using MBD approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2494
The automobile industry is moving towards electrification of Vehicle to remove the exhaust gas emissions. A project was undertaken to develop Electric Vehicle control system from concept to vehicle trials in less than a year. The complete development cycle of an electronic controller required to be compressed to prepare mule electric vehicle within timeline. Agile methodology has been used for this project instead of waterfall as other control systems were in developing stage; system requirements were changing frequently. This paper presents the electric vehicle control unit development with agile methodology using model based development (MBD) in MATLAB and Simulink environment. The project flow consists of major phases like design of electrical architecture, system requirements specification, selection and setting up the simulation platform, EVCU strategy development, testing on Model in Loop (MIL)/ Hardware in Loop (HIL), vehicle trials.
Technical Paper

Noise & Vibration challenges in an Electric Vehicle (Bus), its effect and possible reduction techniques

2019-11-21
2019-28-2493
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Noise and Vibrations is a vast field of study and has been a constant challenge to Acousticians and designers. IC engines have been in existence since almost 125 years and have given enough room & time to acousticians and engineers to develop materials and tune powertrains to minimize Noise and Vibrations from vehicles. With the advent of technology to evolve alternate fueled powertrains to reduce emissions emitted by IC engines, lot of research is being carried out to develop powertrains particularly in the area of Hybrids & Electrics. Substantial investments are being made by OEMs worldwide on researching xEV domain to tap new motor/ battery technologies for vehicles. Since the technology in xEVs is majorly different, the problems associated with them are also different.
Technical Paper

Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

2019-11-21
2019-28-2483
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Solar charging stations for Indian conditions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2484
Electric mobility is the future of tomorrows transport both in the public and private sector. One of the major challenges / issues faced by the electric vehicles is increased time duration of charging. Research classifies Electric Vehicle Charging into level 1, 2, 3 & DC fast charging. Slowest mode being level 1 which needs 120V / 15A, while Level 3 and fast DC charging are faster modes where in less time duration are required for battery charging. In this research a model of solar charging station was analysed for the Indian condition. Analysis indicate that Level 3 and fast DC charging are preferred where in commercial vehicles whereas Level one and 2 are suitable for vehicles that are used for limited periods. An analysis of solar energy as a source of power to charging stations is also made.
Technical Paper

Electric Commercial Vehicles And Charging Solutions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2476
Objective : Objective of the paper is to acquaint the audience with the concept of electric vehicles, Powertrain components used in an electric bus, Siemens contribution to the field of Electromobility, Typical configurations used in an electric bus, challenges and current limitations, emerging Technologies, future, how to address the future charging infra requirement. Methodology : The subject shall be discussed with the audience through a presentation coupled with Explanation by the presenter. The topic shall be opened with the concept of electromobility followed By history of electromobility at Siemens, contribution to the field of electro mobility, typical configurations of electric vehicles, Advantages of electric vehicles vis a vis conventional diesel buses, typical configurations of an electric bus, feasibility of electric buses for various transport services. Comparison of induction motor Vs.
Technical Paper

Realtime Tuning and optimization of EV traction motors with controllers on E-motor testbench

2019-11-21
2019-28-2478
The need for dedicated development of indigenous electric power-train is becoming much essential in the recent times with upcoming trends and policies. Hence, The validation and optimization of the newly developed electric power-train becomes much crucial in order to ensure smooth real world operation. This can be only possible in E-motor test benches with dedicated equipment for thorough evaluation. Also, there are no practical limitations to check the peak characteristics in a controlled laboratory environment. Initially, the motor is setup by mechanically coupling with the dynamo-meter and the controller in the open loop method with constant parameters to check steady state operability without load or external parameters that affect the torque production and speed of the drive. Then progresses to closed loop method incorporating the feedback control and external parameters including torque loading at the shaft from the dynamo-meter.
Technical Paper

Noise and vibration simulations method for electric hybrid tractor powertrain.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2469
Internal combustion (IC) engines have been serving as prime source of power in tractors, since late 19th Century. Over this period, there have been significant improvements in IC engine technology leading to increased power density, reduction in tailpipe emissions and refinement in powertrain noise of tractors. As the regulations governing tailpipe emissions continue to be more stringent, original equipment manufacturers also have initiated work on innovative approaches such as diesel-electric hybrid powertrains to ensure compliance with new norms. However, introduction of such technologies may impact customer’s auditory, vibratory and drivability perceptions. Absence of conventional IC engine noise, association of electric whistle and whine, torque changes with activation/de-activation of motors and transmission behavior under transient conditions may result in new NVH issues in hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2387
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

CNG injector performance analysis against variation of physical and electrical parameters: An alternate fuel approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2389
Authors: Udit Kaul, Mahendarpal and Madhusudan Joshi Organization: International Centre for Automotive Technology, Manesar Introduction: In this paper, a study concerning multi-point CNG injectors (MPCI) or commonly known as injector rail would be presented. Here we would make a detailed analysis regarding the performance of MPCIs due to variation in physical and electrical parameters. In this case multiple MPCIs would be considered and there electrical and dimension parameters would be compared with respect to their performance. The performance comparison would be done based on the common compliance standard under standard laboratory conditions. We would also like to propose the optimal combination of electrical and dimension parameters for better performance. The variables to be considered for the proposed study are: injector valve open/shut timing, injector dimension, voltage levels, solenoid types etc. Key words : multi-point CNG injectors, injector valve, solenoid
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Utilization of treated waste engine oil -butanol blends as fuel for CI engine operated under an optimal engine parameters

2019-11-21
2019-28-2383
Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel to fuel diesel engine. Waste engine oil is causing land pollution and contamination to groundwater a lot. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of treated waste engine oil and butanol as fuel to diesel engine operated under optimal engine operating parameters. This study was conducted in four stages: Treating the waste engine oil; Preparation of blends and testing the properties; Arriving at an optimal injection timing, nozzle opening pressure, compression ratio, and intake air temperature to suit the possible blend of treated waste engine oil and butanol; Testing the possible blend under optimal operating parameters under various load conditions. The properties test indicated that 35% of butanol can be blended with treated engine oil with respect to the essential properties for fueling diesel engine. To optimize the parameters L16 orthogonal array with the Taguchi method was used.
Technical Paper

Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

2019-11-21
2019-28-2384
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards.
Technical Paper

Bio diesel-an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2385
Currently Automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of Conventional fuels. Bio diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Bio diesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Bio diesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic analysis of electric passenger car using wind turbine concept at front end

2019-11-21
2019-28-2396
Electric passenger car with floor battery usually have its front boot space empty and the space is used as additional luggage storage. This space can be utilized to capture the wind energy and generate electricity. Based on this, the objective of this work is to perform an aerodynamic analysis of an electric passenger car using wind turbine placed at the front. Initially the aerodynamic analysis of a basic electric car model is performed and further simulated using wind turbines and aerodynamic add-on-devices. The simulation is carried-out using ANSYS Fluent tool. Based on the simulation result, scaled down optimized model is fabricated and tested in wind tunnel for validation. The result shows reduction of drag coefficient by 5.9%.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
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