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Journal Article

Analysis of Interaction between Autoignition and Strong Pressure Wave Formation during Knock in a Supercharged SI Engine Based on High Speed Photography of the End Gas

2017-11-15
2017-32-0119
Engine knock is the one of the main issues to be addressed in developing high-efficiency spark-ignition (SI) engines. In order to improve the thermal efficiency of SI engines, it is necessary to develop effective means of suppressing knock. For that purpose, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism generating pressure waves in the end-gas region. This study examined the mechanism producing pressure waves in the end-gas autoignition process during SI engine knock by using an optically accessible engine. Occurrence of local autoignition and its development process to the generation of pressures waves were analyzed under several levels of knock intensity. The results made the following points clear. It was observed that end-gas autoignition seemingly progressed in a manner resembling propagation due to the temperature distribution that naturally formed in the combustion chamber. Stronger knock tended to occur as the apparent propagation speed of autoignition increased.
Technical Paper

A Study of Autoignition Behavior and Knock Intensity in a SI Engine under Different Engine Speed by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

2017-11-05
2017-32-0050
Internal combustion engines have been required to achieve even higher efficiency in recent years in order to address environmental concerns. However, knock induced by abnormal combustion in spark-ignition engines has impeded efforts to attain higher efficiency. Knock characteristics during abnormal combustion were investigated in this study by in-cylinder visualization and spectroscopic measurements using a four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine. The results revealed that knock intensity and the manner in which the autoignited flame propagated in the end gas differed depending on the engine speed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0085
This study investigated the effects of recirculated exhaust gas (EGR) and its principal components of N2, CO2 and H2O on moderating Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion. Experiments were conducted using two types of gaseous fuel blends of DME/propane and DME/methane as the test fuels. The addition rates of EGR, N2, CO2 and H2O were varied and the effects of each condition on HCCI combustion of propane and methane were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of CO2 and H2O had the effect of substantially delaying and moderating rapid combustion. The addition of N2 showed only a slight delaying and moderating effect. The addition of EGR had the effect of optimally delaying the combustion timing, while either maintaining or increasing the indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency ηi.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ignition and Combustion in an SI Engine Using Multistage Pulse Discharge Ignition

2017-11-05
2017-32-0069
Lean-burn technology is regarded as one effective way to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines. However, stable ignition is difficult to ensure with a lean mixture. It is expected that this issue can be resolved by improving ignition performance as a result of increasing the amount of energy discharged into the gaseous mixture at the time of ignition. There are limits, however, to how high ignition energy can be increased from the standpoints of spark plug durability, energy consumption and other considerations. Therefore, the authors have focused on a multistage pulse discharge (MSPD) ignition system that performs low-energy ignition multiple times. In this study, a comparison was made of ignition performance between MSPD ignition and conventional spark ignition (SI). A high-speed camera was used to obtain visualized images of ignition in the cylinder and a pressure sensor was used to measure pressure histories in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

A Study of Knocking in a Lean Mixture Using an Optically Accessible Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0002
Improving the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines requires operation under a lean combustion regime and a higher compression ratio, which means that the causes of autoignition and pressure oscillations in this operating region must be made clear. However, there is limited knowledge of autoignition behavior under lean combustion conditions. Therefore, in this study, experiments were conducted in which the ignition timing and intake air temperature (scavenging temperature) of a 2-stroke optically accessible test engine were varied to induce autoignition under a variety of conditions. The test fuel used was a primary reference fuel with an octane rating of 90. The results revealed that advancing the ignition timing under lean combustion conditions also advanced the autoignition timing, though strong pressure oscillations on the other hand tended not to occur.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Knocking Characteristics of an SI-HCCI Engine by Using In-Cylinder Visualization

2016-11-08
2016-32-0005
In-cylinder visualization of the entire bore area at an identical frame rate was used to investigate knocking conditions under spark ignition (SI) combustion and under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion in the same test engine. A frequency analysis was also conducted on the measured pressure signals. The results revealed that a combustion regime accompanied by strong pressure oscillations occurred in both the SI and HCCI modes, which was presumably caused by rapid autoignition with attendant brilliant light emission that took place near the cylinder wall. It was found that the knocking timing was the dominant factor of this combustion regime accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations in both the SI and HCCI combustion modes.
Technical Paper

A Study of HCCI Operating Range Expansion by Applying Reaction Characteristics of Low-Carbon Alternative Fuels

2016-11-08
2016-32-0011
Issues that must be addressed to make Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines a practical reality include the difficulty of controlling the ignition timing and suppression of rapid combustion under high load conditions. Overcoming these issues to make HCCI engines viable for practical application is indispensable to the further advancement of internal combustion engines. Previous studies have reported that the operating region of HCCI combustion can be expanded by using DME and Methane blended fuels.(1), (2), (3), (4), (5) The reason is that the reaction characteristics of these two low-carbon fuels, which have different ignition properties, have the effect of inducing heat release in two stages during main combustion, thus avoiding excessively rapid combustion. However, further moderation of rapid combustion in high-load region is needed to expand the operation region. This study focused on supercharging and use of blended fuels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Supercharging and EGR on Multi-stage Heat Release in an HCCI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0009
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest as a combustion system that offers the advantages of high efficiency and low exhaust emissions. However, it is difficult to control the ignition timing in an HCCI combustion system owing to the lack of a physical means of initiating ignition like the spark plug in a gasoline engine or fuel injection in a diesel engine. Moreover, because the mixture ignites simultaneously at multiple locations in the cylinder, it produces an enormous amount of heat in a short period of time, which causes greater engine noise, abnormal combustion and other problems in the high load region. The purpose of this study was to expand the region of stable HCCI engine operation by finding a solution to these issues of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Calcium-Based Additives with Different Properties on Abnormal Combustion in an SI Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0007
Technologies for further improving vehicle fuel economy have attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, one problem with some approaches is the occurrence of abnormal combustion such as low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs under low-speed, high-load operating conditions. One proposed cause of LSPI is that oil droplets diluted by the fuel enter the combustion chamber and become a source of ignition. Another proposed cause is that deposits peel off and become a source of ignition. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine was used in this study to investigate the influence of Ca-based additives having different properties on abnormal combustion by means of in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic measurements. The results obtained for neutral and basic Ca-based additives revealed that the former had an effect on advancing the time of autoignition.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

2015-11-17
2015-32-0770
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Practical Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0801
In recent years, it has been expected the conversion of wasted biomass to industry available energy. In this study, 80 wt.% of wood and 20 wt.% of polypropylene were liquefied by the mineral oil used as solvent. The liquefied material was distilled, and distillation fraction of temperature from 493 to 573 K was recognized as light oil fraction CLF (Cellulose Liquefaction Fuel) and that from 378 to 493 K was recognized as naphtha fraction CLF. CLFs were blended with light oil and, in engine performance test, mixing ratio of light oil fraction CLF was 5 wt.%, and in vehicle running test, weight mixing ratios were 5 or 10 wt.%. In engine performance test, indicator diagrams and rate of heat releases of light oil fraction CLF 5 wt.% mixed light oil were almost equivalent to those of light oil in all load conditions, and engine performance and exhaust gas emissions were also almost equivalent to light oil.
Technical Paper

Influence of Internal EGR on Knocking in an HCCI Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0807
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines have attracted much attention and are being widely researched as engines characterized by low emissions and high efficiency. However, one issue of HCCI engines is their limited operating range because of the occurrence of rapid combustion at high loads and misfiring at low loads. It is known that knocking accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations also occurs in HCCI engines at high loads, similar to knocking seen in spark-ignition engines. In this study, HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations was visualized by taking high-speed photographs of the entire bore area. In addition, the influence of internal exhaust gas circulation (EGR) on HCCI knocking was also investigated. The visualized combustion images revealed that rapid autoignition occurred in the end-gas region during the latter half of the HCCI combustion process when accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations.
Journal Article

Influence of Ca-, Mg- and Na-Based Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2015-11-17
2015-32-0771
One issue of downsized and supercharged engines is low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) that occurs in the low-speed and high-load operating region. One proposed cause of LSPI is the influence of the engine oil and its additives. However, the effect of engine oil additives on pre-ignition and the mechanism involved are still not fully understood. This study investigated the influence of engine oil additives on abnormal combustion in a spark-ignition engine. A four-stroke air-cooled single-cylinder engine with a side valve arrangement was used in conducting combustion experiments. The research methods used were in-cylinder pressure analysis, in-cylinder visualization and absorption spectroscopic analysis. Engine oil additives were mixed individually at a fixed concentration into a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 50 and their effect on knocking was investigated.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Conditions Producing Two-Stage Main Combustion Heat Release in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using a Gaseous Fuel Blend

2015-09-01
2015-01-1785
In this study, a detailed analysis was made of supercharged HCCI combustion using a two-component fuel blend of dimethyl ether (DME), which has attracted interest as a potential alternative fuel, and methane. The quantity of fuel injected and boost pressure were varied to investigate the equivalence ratio and operating region conducive to optimal HCCI combustion. The results revealed that varying the boost pressure according to the engine load and applying a suitable equivalence ratio induced two-stage main combustion over a wide load range, making it possible to avoid excessively rapid combustion.
Journal Article

A Study of the Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Waves under HCCI Knocking by using an Optically Accessible Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1795
This study investigated the origin of knocking combustion accompanied by pressure wave and strong pressure oscillations in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke single cylinder optically accessible engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The test fuel used was n-heptane. The equivalence ratio and intake temperature were varied to induce a transition from moderate HCCI combustion to extremely rapid HCCI combustion accompanied by in-cylinder pressure oscillations. Local autoignition and pressure wave behavior under each set of operating conditions were investigated in detail on the basis of high-speed in-cylinder visualization and in-cylinder pressure analysis. As a result, under conditions where strong knocking occurs, a brilliant flame originates from the burned gas side in the process where the locally occurring autoignition gradually spreads to multiple locations.
Technical Paper

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Blended Fuels of Propane and DME

2014-11-11
2014-32-0005
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion.
Journal Article

A Study on the Effect of Zn- and Mo-Based Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal SI Engine Combustion using In-Cylinder Combustion Visualization

2014-11-11
2014-32-0096
Spontaneous low-speed pre-ignition, strong knock and other abnormal combustion events that occur in supercharged direct-injection engines are viewed as serious issues. The effects of the engine oil and the components of engine oil additives have been pointed out as one cause of such abnormal combustion. However, the mechanisms involved have yet to be elucidated, and it is unclear how the individual components of engine oil additives influence autoignition. This study investigated the effect on autoignition of boundary lubricant additives that are mixed into the engine oil for the purpose of forming a lubricant film on metal surfaces. A high-speed camera was used to photograph and visualize combustion through an optical access window provided in the combustion chamber of the four-stroke naturally aspirated side-valve test engine. Spectroscopic measurements were also made simultaneously to investigate the characteristics of abnormal combustion in detail.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Knocking Accompanied by Pressure Oscillations Based on Visualization of the Entire Bore Area

2014-10-13
2014-01-2664
Knocking combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a test engine that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The purpose was to make clear the detailed characteristics of knocking combustion that occurs accompanied by cylinder pressure oscillations when a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine is operated at high loads. Knocking combustion was intentionally induced by varying the main combustion period and engine speed. Under such conditions, knocking in HCCI combustion was investigated in detail on the basis of cylinder pressure analysis, high-speed photography of the combustion flame and spectroscopic measurement of flame light emissions. The results revealed that locally occurring autoignition took place rapidly at multiple locations in the cylinder when knocking combustion occurred. In that process, the unburned end gas subsequently underwent even more rapid autoignition, giving rise to cylinder pressure oscillations.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Varying the Supercharging Pressure and Fuel Octane Number on Spark Ignition Engine Knocking using Spectroscopic Measurement and In-cylinder Visualization

2013-10-15
2013-32-9030
Engine downsizing with a turbocharger / supercharger has attracted attention as a way of improving the fuel economy of automotive gasoline engines, but this approach can be frustrated by the occurrence of abnormal combustion. In this study, the factors causing abnormal combustion were investigated using a supercharged, downsized engine that was built by adding a mechanical supercharger. Combustion experiments were conducted in which the fuel octane number and supercharging pressure were varied while keeping the engine speed, equivalence ratio and intake air temperature constant. In the experiments, a visualization technique was applied to photograph combustion in the combustion chamber, absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the intermediate products of combustion, and the cylinder pressure was measured. The experimental data obtained simultaneously were then analyzed to examine the effects on combustion.
Technical Paper

An Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine - Improvement of Fuel Property by Cellulosic Liquefaction with Plastics -

2013-10-15
2013-32-9174
There are few investigations to change wood biomasses to the industrially available energy, so that a new conversion technology of biomass to liquid fuel has been established by the direct liquefaction process. However, cellulosic liquefaction fuel (for short CLF) cold not mixed with diesel fuel. In this study, the plastic was mixed with wood to improve the solubility of CLF to diesel fuel. CLF made by the direct co-liquefaction process could be stably and completely mixed with diesel fuel in any mixing ratio and CLF included 2 wt.% of oxygen. The test engine was an air-cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder, direct fuel injection diesel engine. In the engine starting condition test, the ignition timing of 5 wt.% CLF mixed diesel fuel was slightly delayed at immediately after the engine started, however the ignition timing was almost the same as diesel fuel after the engine was warmed-up.
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