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Training / Education

Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends

2020-06-16
Turbocharging is rapidly becoming an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, it is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This web seminar will discuss the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. The course will explore the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2392
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after addition of CNG Tank

2019-11-21
2019-28-2405
Objective The objective of this paper is to achieve a comparable handling performance from a vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its gasoline counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through standard handling evaluation tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the Base vehicle. Further these results are used to tune the suspension parameters to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle. The final parameters are then evaluated in the actual vehicle to verify the study. Methodology A mix of Actual Mule vehicle testing backed by quik Car Sim Model. Full car model is first developed using CarSim by using the parameters of the actual base gasoline vehicle. The modeled vehicle is then tested for standard handling maneuvers such Double Lane Change, Constant Radius Constant Speed and Pulse Input.
Technical Paper

A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

2019-11-21
2019-28-2386
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2560
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2019-11-11
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine States Estimation using Extended Kalman Filter and Disturbance Observer

2019-10-22
2019-01-2603
Accurate estimation of engine state(s) is vital for engine control systems to achieve their designated objectives. Fusion of sensors can significantly improve the estimation results in terms of accuracy and precision. This paper investigates using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate engine state(s) for Spark Ignited (SI) engines with the external EGR system. The EKF combines air path sensors with cylinder pressure feedback through a control-oriented engine cycle domain model. The model integrates air path dynamics, torque generation, exhaust gas temperature, and residual gas mass. The EKF generates a cycle-based estimation of engine state(s) for model-based control algorithms which is not the focus of this paper. The sensor and noise dynamics are analyzed and integrated into the EKF formulation. To account for ‘none-white’ disturbances including modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset, the EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance state(s) estimation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector End of Injection Spray Characteristics

2019-10-22
2019-01-2600
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

2019-10-11
2019-28-0017
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine.
Technical Paper

Emission and Noise Optimization of CRDe Engine with Pilot Injection Strategies

2019-10-11
2019-28-0019
The combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norus. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0030
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stringent across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases. The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on an EGR Based Diesel Engine Fueled with the Blend of Diesel and Plastic Oil and an Antioxidant Additive

2019-10-11
2019-28-0079
Experimental investigations carried out in a diesel engine incorporated with Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), fuelled with the blend of diesel and plastic oil along with an antioxidant additive (p-Phenylenediamine) are presented in this paper. Plastic oil is produced from waste plastics through the process of pyrolysis which could be a potential substitute to fossil diesel in diesel engine applications. Production of plastic oil provides solution to the global twin problems of plastic waste management and energy crisis. Investigations have been carried out with the test fuel separately, test fuel with the additive, test fuel with incorporation of EGR in the engine and test fuel with additive and EGR incorporation. Test results revealed that blend of diesel and plastic oil exhibited performance and emissions at par with pure diesel, 18% reduction in NO emission through EGR incorporation as compared to without EGR and 15% reduction in NO through use of antioxidant additive.
Technical Paper

Study of NOx Reduction Efficiency in NSR and NSR-SCR Combined Systems

2019-10-11
2019-28-0087
The present study was carried out to analyze the catalytic action of K2O-Al2O3 in NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) monolith catalyst and Fe2O3-TiO2 in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) monolith catalyst. The core objective of this investigation is to determine the maximum percentage of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction in NSR and NSR-SCR combined system with respect to engine exhaust gas temperature and compares the results with the results of the conventional mode of operation. To accomplish this task monolith ceramic bricks were coated with K2O-Al2O3 (NSR) and Fe2O3-TiO2 (SCR) catalyst and were placed in different configurations inside the catalytic chamber. Several trials were attempted to get the optimal operating temperature that has a maximum NOx removal efficiency when successively connecting a single NSR catalyst and the combined NSR-SCR double bed catalyst. Single NSR monolith at 320 °C, showed the best NOx conversion rate of 74%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Cone Angle and NTP on Performance and Emissions of BS6 Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0108
The combustion phenomenon of diesel engines has got a very major impact on the performance and exhaust emission levels. Several important factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, Exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. decide the quality of combustion. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum timing of injection. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which lead to the selection of perfect injector for a given engine. This paper focusses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP.
Technical Paper

Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0134
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and DMLS manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. Reciprocating wear test is carried out for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature with SAE 40 grade oil as lubricant. Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and DMLS manufactured samples are compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.
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