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Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2020-10-20
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Training / Education

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems

2020-09-18
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
Training / Education

Evaporative and Refueling Emission Control

2020-07-27
All gasoline powered vehicles and equipment create exhaust and evaporative and refueling emissions. Unlike exhaust emissions, which occur only when the engine is operating, evaporative emissions (evap emissions) occur all the time. Controlling evap emissions to PZEV levels is as challenging as controlling exhaust emissions. It becomes even more important in the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and extended range electric vehicles (EREV) which generate evaporative fuel vapors, but have no place to burn/consume the vapors when the engine does not operate for extended periods of time.
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2020-03-27
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Training / Education

FEA Beyond Basics Thermal Analysis

2019-12-16
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a powerful and well recognized tool used in the analysis of heat transfer problems. However, FEA can only analyze solid bodies and, by necessity thermal analysis with FEA is limited to conductive heat transfer. The other two types of heat transfer: convection and radiation must by approximated by boundary conditions. Modeling all three mechanisms of heat transfer without arbitrary assumption requires a combined use of FEA and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
Training / Education

Combustion and Emissions for Engineers

2019-12-09
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

A mathematical expression to predict the influence of ethanol concentration on distillation behavior of gasoline-ethanol fuel blend and impact of non -ionic surfactant on E20 fuel

2019-11-21
2019-28-2386
Blending of primary alcohol in gasoline surges the vapour pressure significantly and exhibits azeotrope behaviour that effect severely on the atmospheric distillation yields. In this experiment, primary alcohol (Ethanol) were blended in varied volumetric proportion (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%) with hydrocracked gasoline, influence on volatility behaviour and distillation properties were investigated. Physical properties of this blends were investigated for vapour pressure (VP), VLI, DI and distillation which were selected to evaluate the influence of alcohol in azeotrope behaviour of the fuel mix reflected through pattern of distillation curve (temperature vs % recovery range). This fuel mix exhibited rise in recovery at 700C (E70), VP, VLI and area of azeotrope with increase in % of alcohol volume in gasoline blend.
Technical Paper

EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2387
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Prospects of Bio Diesel and blends as a fuel supplement for diesel engines.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2393
Biodiesel can supplement petroleum product as a "perfect vitality source". It can ensure nature by diminishing CO2, SO2, CO, HC emission to an extent. The carbon cycle of Biodiesel is dynamic through the photosynthesis procedure .Plants ingest CO2, or, in other words those released by the biodiesel ignition process. Utilizing biodiesel can all the more adequately lessen the outflow of CO2, secure the indigenous habitat and keep up the environmental equalization, contrasted with the utilization of petroleum product. This paper considers the issues and gives understanding on the utilization of bio diesel in existing passenger vehicles which runs on diesel as a fuel. Because of increment in use of non-renewable energy sources viz., petroleum products are on an exponential decline. Today we have an option of electric vehicle or fuel cell based vehicles but what about the existing infrastructures of Billions of vehicles plying on Indian road. Bio diesel as a fuel solves this issue.
Technical Paper

New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2392
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
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