Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Utilisation Treated Waste Engine oil and Diesohol blends as fuel for Compression Ignition Engine – An Experimental Study

2019-11-21
2019-28-2384
Diesel Ethanol (Diesohol) blends are one of the suitable alternative fuel to replace diesel for fueling the compression ignition engines. This experimental study is to utilize optimal fuel blend that contains a higher volume of ethanol in diesel with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent for preventing the phase separation. This study includes three stages: Treating the waste engine oil, preparation of diesel ethanol blends with treated waste engine oil as co-solvent, testing the blends for solubility, properties and performance in a compression ignition engines. Treatment of waste engine oil was conducted in five steps including the acid-clay treatment, in which acetic acid and fuller earth were used as treating materials. Solubility test was conducted for various proportions of diesel-ethanol blends (from 0% to 50% of ethanol by volume) and treated waste engine oil (from 5% to 25%). The stable blends were tested for essential properties as per the ASTM standards.
Technical Paper

EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2387
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bio-diesel fuel filter Size media and configuration for longer service interval .

2019-11-21
2019-28-2391
Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Adaptation of Bio diesel comes with reduced maintainability and high maintenance cost. Blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel are most commonly used in automotive diesel engines. Biodiesel is most popular choice as an alternate fuel of fossil diesel due to its easy availability, eco-friendly nature and minimum change in existing diesel engine for retro fitment. In this paper efforts have been taken to optimize the life of Fuel filter for bio diesel application. For improving Fuel filter life, modifications carried out in Fuel filter media, size and configuration. Further, Fuel filter tested on Engine test bed and Vehicle to establish the life of filter in real world usage condition. Testing Results were compared with existing diesel fuel filter.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2560
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for its Performance and Emission Characteristics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2375
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus Colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics. The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like ATB10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), ATB20, ATB30 and ATB40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2019-11-11
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2019-09-20
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Optical spray investigations on OME3-5 in a constant volume high pressure chamber

2019-09-15
2019-24-0234
Synthetic fuels generated with surplus renewable electricity, water and captured CO2, so called E-fuels, offer the possibility to easily store excess energy over long periods of time. Therefore, the ALIGN-CCUS-project seeks to use them for power-generation and as a fuel for the transport-sector. Polyoxymethylene-dimethyl-ethers (POMDMEs, short: OME) are promising E-fuels for passenger-car applications. Their molecular structure is CH3-O-(CH2O)n-CH3. For passenger-car applications, OME-mixtures with n between 3 and 5 seem most suitable, as the mixture is liquid under normal ambient conditions, offers a high cetane-number and sufficient lubricity. Their high flash-point, low toxicity and good miscibility with conventional diesel-fuel also may ease their market-introduction.
Technical Paper

Effects of prechamber on efficiency improvement and emissions reduction of a SI engine fuelled with gasoline and CNG

2019-09-15
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in an real small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with Gasoline and CNG and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. In particular, Gasoline and CNG were used to analyze the effects of the prechamber on engine performance and associated pollutant emissions. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Mass Burned Fraction were used to evaluate the effects on engine performance. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Purification Performance Enhancement by Early Activation of Three Way Catalysts for Gasoline Engines Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0148
Three-way catalyst (TWC) converters are used to purify the toxic substances such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC) emitted from gasoline engines. However, a large amount of emissions could be emitted before the TWC reaching its light-off temperature during cold start. For hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by gasoline engines, the emission purification performance by TWC unfortunately become worse caused by mode switching from engine to battery and vice versa, which is possible to generate cold start conditions over and over for TWC In this study, targeting at reducing the emissions from series HEVs by early activation of TWC, numerical simulations with experiments are carried out. A HEV is tested on a chassis dynamometer under Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) mode; the upstream and downstream gas conditions of the close-coupled catalyst converter are measured.
Technical Paper

Emissions Optimization Potential of a Diesel Engine Running on HVO: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0039
The present work investigates some recalibration possibilities of a 1.4l common rail turbo-charged diesel engine for the optimal operation in terms of emissions and fuel consumption (FC) with pure Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Initially, steady-state experimental data with nominal engine settings revealed HVO benefits as a drop-in fuel. Under these conditions, pure HVO is associated with lower engine out PM (up to 75%) and CO2 (up to 10%) emissions, and lower mass-based FC (up to 9%), while NOx are similar or slightly higher to diesel fuel. At the next step, a combustion model was developed for the particular engine targeting to identify the optimal IT (Injection Timing) and EGR settings for further emissions (PM, NOx and CO2) and FC reduction with pure HVO. For this purpose, four re-adjusted IT and EGR maps were developed with both conventional diesel and HVO.
Technical Paper

Analysis of TWC Operation Characteristics in a Euro6 Gasoline Light Duty Vehicle

2019-09-09
2019-24-0162
A Euro6 gasoline light duty vehicle has been tested at the engine dynamometer and the emissions have been analyzed upstream and downstream the Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) during the WLTP cycle. Catalyst simulations have been used for assessing the processes inside the catalytic converter using a reaction scheme based on 19 brutto reactions (Direct oxidation and reduction, selective catalytic re-ductions with CO, C3H6 and H2, steam reforming, water-gas shift and bulk Ceria as well as surface Ce-ria reactions). The reactions have been parametrized in order to best approximate the measurements. Based on the reactions taken into account, the real vehicle emissions can be predicted with good accu-racy. The simulations show that the cycle emissions are comprising mainly by the cold start contribution as well as discrete emission break-through events during transients.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted GDI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0153
The European Particle Measurement Program (PMP) defines the current standard for measurement of particle number (PN) emissions from vehicles in Europe. This specifies a 50% count efficiency (D50) at 23 nm and a 90% count efficiency (D90) at 41 nm. Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely studied, but usually only in the context of PMP or similar sampling procedures. There is increasing interest in the smallest particles – i.e. smaller than 23 nm – which can be emitted from vehicles. The literature suggest that by moving D50 to 10 nm, PN emissions from GDI engines might increase by between 35 and 50 % but there remains a lot of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Biogenous Ethanol: CO2 Savings and Operation in a Dual-Fuel Designed Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0040
The usage of ethanol and two different mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (E85 and E65) was investigated on a modified diesel engine designed to work in a dual-fuel combustion mode with intake manifold alcohol injection. The maximum ratio of alcohol to diesel fuel was limited by irregular combustion phenomena like degrading combustion quality and poor process controllability at low load and knock as well as auto-ignition at high load. With rising alcohol amount, a significant reduction of soot mass and particle number was observed. At some testing points, substituting diesel with ethanol, E65 or E85 led to a reduction of NOx emissions; however, the real benefit concerning the nitrogen oxides was introduced by the mitigation of the soot-NOx trade-off. With regard to the engine efficiency aspect, the results show bidirectional behaviour: at low load points engine efficiency degrades, whereas the process becomes by up to 6 % (rel.) more effective at higher engine loads.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on Engine-Out Emissions Sensitivity to Fuel Injection Pressure of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0169
In recent times complying with increasingly stringent emission regulations has become ever more challenging. While an efficient after-treatment system that includes gasoline particulate filter enables compliance with legislation requirements, lowering engine-out emissions by improving combustion system has to be considered as a crucial advantage not only in regard to pollutants emission control, but also performance. In this respect, high-performance enabling contents such as relatively large displacement, flow-capacity oriented intake ports and a limited stroke-to-bore ratio have significant drawbacks on the charge motion quality and as direct consequence on mixture formation and homogeneity.
X