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Technical Paper

CAN AUTOMOBILE BODY WEIGHT BE REDUCED?

1921-01-01
210010
Automobile body building derives its origin from carriage body building, which was highly developed before automobiles were thought of. The introduction of automobile bodies fitted to a metal frame changed body builders' rules and calculations. The influence of the metal frame is discussed briefly and the limiting sizes of body members are considered also. According to the ideas expressed, the weight of bodies can be reduced if the metal frame is designed so as to support the weight of the passengers and the body. The dead-weight also can be reduced if the frame is built in proportion to the amount of weight carried, the number of passengers and the style of bodies being considered. But in the construction of enclosed bodies, as in sedans, coaches and broughams, very little weight can be saved if stability, durability and lasting quality are to be retained.
Technical Paper

FUEL RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS

1921-01-01
210012
Two distinct problems are involved in fuel research work, multi-cylinder distribution and the chemical constitution of the fuel mixture after it enters an engine cylinder. In discussing elementary combustion, the author refers to the components of the energy of combustion as gravitational, kinetic and barometric, and elaborates his theme with the aid of diagrams and charts showing normal and abnormal combustion. After emphasizing the necessity of theorizing at some length, anti-knock substances are discussed, inclusive of substances apparently dissimilar that have the same chemical constituents. The ignition point and fuel utilization are treated, followed by comments upon fuel studies that have been made, with accompanying indicator-cards. The future objectives of fuel research are outlined as being along lines of physical and of thermo-chemistry, the simple laws of elementary physics, and cooperation with the producers and refiners of the fuel.
Technical Paper

VOLATILITY OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE GASOLINE

1921-01-01
210011
After stating that the meaning of the term “gasoline” seems to be generally misunderstood for the reason that it has been assumed that gasoline is, or ought to be, the name of a specific product, the author states that it is not and never has been a specific product and that although gasoline has a definite and generic meaning in the oil trade it has no specific meaning whatever. It means merely a light distillate from crude petroleum. Its degree of lightness, from what petroleum it is distilled and how it is distilled or refined are unspecified. Specifically, “gasoline” is the particular grade of gasoline which at a given moment is distributed in bulk at retail. It can be defined with reasonable precision as being the cheapest petroleum product acceptable for universal use as a fuel in the prevailing type of internal-combustion engine.
Technical Paper

AERONAUTIC PROPELLER DESIGN

1921-01-01
210002
It is of course impossible to consider propeller design very much in detail in a paper of this nature. It can be said, however, that the airfoil theory, in connection with the inflow theory, has given very good results and proved exceedingly valuable for the aerodynamic design of propellers. Both theories, however, in the present state of knowledge, must be applied with a number of empirical factors. Propeller-design theories and the subject of aerodynamics are discussed mathematically, as well as the elements governing the best propeller diameter for obtaining the highest thrust. Consideration is given in detail to steel, adjustable-pitch and reversible propellers as well as to those made of laminated construction consisting of sheets of paper fabric impregnated with bakelite as a binder. The mathematical considerations that apply to propellers when reversed in flight, the time and distance required to stop when landing and the propeller stresses are enumerated and commented upon.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE OBLIGATIONS TOWARD HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT

1921-01-01
210001
The author brings to attention very emphatically the responsibility of the automotive industry for some things besides the actual building and selling of motor cars. The progress of civilization can be measured very largely by advances in means of communication. The transfer of messages by wire and wireless has made wonderful advances of a fundamental nature in recent years, but the transportation of commodities from place to place has not made such strides. The automotive industry has been concerned mostly with the actual development and production of the motor car and, as an industry, has stopped there without developing those allied activities which are vital to the long-time success of the business. The railroads afford a good example to follow in principle.
Technical Paper

RESUME OF BUREAU OF STANDARDS FUEL STUDY

1921-01-01
210004
The author states that considerable thought has been devoted recently to the relation of fuel end-point to fuel economy. It has been shown that, provided an intimate mixture of fuel-vapor and air is secured, such a mixture will not condense at the ordinary temperatures of the intake. However, on the contrary, crankcase dilution, an excess of deposited carbon, low mileage per gallon of fuel and ignition trouble are being experienced. There appears to be a discrepancy between the efficiency that should be attained and what is actually attained. To investigate this the Bureau of Standards undertook a brief series of experiments to rough out a line of procedure. Regarding compression of a dry mixture, curves are shown to illustrate that gasoline vapor compresses when “dry.” Detonation was evident when using one spark-plug and there was no detonation when using two spark-plugs.
Technical Paper

A SUGGESTED RULE FOR RATING RACING CARS

1921-01-01
210003
In recent years automobile engines for racing purposes have been very generally rated in accordance with their piston displacement. The natural result has been to encourage the highest possible engine speeds to attain the greatest possible piston displacement per minute. Features of engine design that have been developed under this rule include enormous valve areas, usually obtained by a multiplicity of valves, huge inlet pipes and carbureters, extreme valve-timing and very light reciprocating parts, all of which are undesirable in commercial engines. To encourage the design of engines of a type developing higher efficiency at lower engine speeds, the suggestion is made that a rule be formulated under which cars will be rated in accordance with the piston displacement per mile actually used by them. Such a rule would involve rear-wheel diameter and gear-ratio, as well as the piston displacement of the engine.
Technical Paper

FARM-POWER MEETING PAPERS - THE CARBURETION OF ALCOHOL

1921-01-01
210032
The author describes the development of an alcohol-burning tractor engine, after having stated a few of the fundamental requirements for burning alcohol economically and the results that can be attained by following them. The first trials were with 127-lb. gage compression at a normal operating speed. The problems attacked were those of what amount of heat applied to the mixture is desirable and its general effect on economy, output and operation; power output; general operation of the engine; and fuel consumption. The experimental work was done on a 4¼ x 6-in. four-cylinder 16-valve engine; this is described in detail and the results are presented in chart form. The conditions necessary for the proper use of alcohol as a fuel are discussed.
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