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Technical Paper

SOLVING THE GASOLINE PROBLEM

1917-01-01
170047
The author first compares mineral oils with certain other liquids in order to point out clearly certain of their characteristics. He then shows the economic benefits that would result from making more of the crude available for use as fuels. He discusses such topics as cracking methods in use, advantages of dry gas, initial flame propagation, gas producers, hot mixtures, wet mixtures and difficulties of correcting existing engines. He concludes by proposing as a solution of the gasoline problem the more general use of superheated homogeneous fixed dry gases made in vaporizing devices independent of engine cylinders, and outlines means for attaining this end. Performance data covering the use of mixtures of kerosene and gasoline on several cars are included in a table, and several charts throughout the paper illustrate many of the topics discussed.
Technical Paper

CONSTRUCTION OF JUNKERS ENGINE

1917-01-01
170048
The author, from a first-hand study of this engine in the laboratory of Professor Junkers, traces the progress of the developmental work, and discusses the methods of operating the engine, its present status, its application to airplanes, trucks and tractors, details of marine and stationary types, fuel, advantages of and objections to the double-piston construction, and describes at some length the various parts entering into the construction of this type of engine. In conclusion, he summarizes the fundamental advantages of the Junkers engine.
Technical Paper

AVIATION ENGINE DEVELOPMENT

1917-01-01
170042
This paper first traces the early development of aviation engines in various countries. The six-cylinder Mercedes, V-type twelve-cylinder Renault, and six-cylinder Benz engines are then described in detail and illustrated. Various types of Sunbeam, Curtiss, and Austro-Daimler are also described. The effect of offset crankshafts, as employed on the Benz and Austro-Daimler engines, is illustrated by pressure and inertia diagrams and by textual description. The paper concludes with a section on the requirements as to size of aviation engines, four curves showing the changing conditions which affect the engine size requirements. These curves relate to variations of temperature, air density, engine speed, airplane speed and compression ratio required to compensate for decrease in air density, all as related to varying altitude.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE ENGINE COOLING

1917-01-01
170041
This paper deals only with water-cooled engines, the cooling system being considered as made up of four main units-the water jacket, the circulating system, the radiator and the fan. Water-jacket problems are first considered, followed by a comparison of pump and gravity (thermosyphon) systems of circulation. The next section is devoted to radiator requirements. The balance of the paper relates to the fan. Five curves show graphically the correlations of the various factors of cooling, power consumed, air velocity and volume, engine speed, fan speed, air and water temperatures and the element of time, the results applying to different types and sizes of fans. These curves are of service in the selection of fans for radiator cooling purposes. The classification of fans, fan power consumption and speed, fan belts and pulleys, disadvantages of high fan speed, types of fan bearings, and applications of fans are the subjects next taken up.
Technical Paper

THE TRACTOR FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF FARM MANAGEMENT

1917-01-01
170039
The author first considers the size of farm on which tractors can be used profitably. Confining his remarks to certain of the central and north central states, he points out the fact that there is a strong tendency for farms from 20 to 100 acres to be combined with others to make units of a more efficient size for the application of modern farming methods. Farms from 100 to 500 acres, representing 65 per cent of the total farm acreage, are the greatest users of tractors. Farms over 500 acres contain 25 per cent of the farm land, and also represent an important tractor market. Efficient sizes of tractors are next treated; three and four-plow sizes are generally preferred. Belt work, representing 50 per cent of a typical tractor's work, and other special duties performed by the tractor are next referred to.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS OF CRANKSHAFT DESIGN

1917-01-01
170040
The forces necessary to induce and maintain gasoline engine speeds of 3000 r.p.m. or faster, as well as other forces closely associated with high speeds, are numerous. The author has, however, confined his discussion to the three most important groups of forces upon which, in the main, the smooth running and the life of an engine depend. The different component forces were determined in respect to two engines of equal capacity for twenty-four crank positions, uniformly spaced at intervals of 30 degrees, which constitutes two revolutions and one complete cycle in the case of four-stroke cycle engines. Medium-sized six and twelve-cylinder engines were chosen for investigation. Corresponding components were combined as resultant forces and graphically represented in magnitude and direction. Several such characteristic diagrams of the resultant forces acting upon crankpins and main bearings of the two engines investigated are reproduced throughout the paper.
Technical Paper

BUILDING SUBMARINE CHASERS BY STANDARDIZED METHODS

1917-01-01
170030
The author outlines the history of the 550 submarine chasers built for the British Government between April, 1915, and November, 1916, and attributes the success of the undertaking largely to scientific standardization. He cites some of the early difficulties in obtaining supplies and tells how they were met, and mentions how and why the fabrication was carried out in this country and the assembly made in Canada. The paper concludes with citation of the principal dimensions of the boats, power, speed and cruising radius. In the course of the discussion the author refers further to the power plant and mentions some of the war-time duties of this type of craft.
Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTALS OF A SUCCESSFUL KEROSENE-BURNING TRACTOR ENGINE

1917-01-01
170029
After noting that the early development of the automobile industry took place at a time when gasoline was a drug on the market, this paper reviews the cycle of operations of a standard gasoline engine in order to point out its limitations and the possibilities of utilizing a less volatile fuel than gasoline and of securing lower consumptions of fuels of all kinds. Compression and expansion limitations and the reduction of mean effective pressures at light loads are considered. Disadvantages of throttling control are pointed out, citing as a parallel example the trend of steam engine design away from this means of control. The author then outlines the advantageous features of the improved Diesel engine design, and by means of curves shows the great fuel economy of this type as compared with gasoline engines. He concludes by defining “the ideal tractor engine.”
Technical Paper

THE FARM TRACTOR AS RELATED TO THE FOOD PROBLEM

1917-01-01
170028
The author first points out how increasing population and rising standards of living have increased the demand for foodstuffs and how such industrial activities as are brought about by the present conflict magnify the seriousness of the food problem, not only by withdrawing workers from the farms, but also by increasing food consumption on the part of those engaged in the speeded-up industries in order to supply the increased human energy required. The author then passes to a discussion of the tractor as a means for increasing the food supply by taking the place of withdrawn labor and cheapening production. Several charts show the effect of increased individual activity on food consumption, the relation of food consumption to standards of living and the growth of population, the variation of food demand during political activities during the past century, and the relation of the cost per calorie of various cereals.
Technical Paper

LESSONS OF THE WAR IN TRUCK DESIGN

1917-01-01
170027
The title of this paper fully indicates its scope. The author presents an intimate picture of conditions prevailing at the war front which affect the operation and maintenance of war trucks, and these two factors in turn indicate the trend that design should take. The training of the mechanical transport personnel of the Army is also gone into at some length. The English and American trucks used earlier in the war consisted of about nineteen different makes and forty-two totally different models, resulting in a very serious problem of providing spare parts and maintenance in general. In the British Army transportation comes under an Army Service Corps officer called the Director of Transport and Supplies. At the outbreak of the war these officers had had little mechanical experience, horses being employed principally. In the French Army motor vehicles were used to a greater extent before the war, under the artillery command.
Technical Paper

BURNING KEROSENE IN TRACTOR ENGINES

1917-01-01
170031
The author states as his object a review of what has been done and what must be done to make tractors successful in operating on low-grade fuels, especially kerosene. He takes up in order the four principal methods in common use of applying heat to vaporize kerosene, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of each method and of its modifications. The author then cites various experiments with different types of carbureters in burning kerosene, drawing at length upon his own experience in this connection. He cites difficulties with gas distribution, manifold condensation, pistons and spark-plugs and points out that carbureter design is inseparable from considerations of tractor engine and manifold design. That better progress has not been made in the past in developing kerosene-burning tractor engines is stated to be largely owing to the fact that there has not been sufficient cooperation between engine and carbureter manufacturers.
Technical Paper

SPRING DESIGN FOR EASY RIDING

1917-01-01
170052
After pointing out the existing dearth of easily workable data and formulas covering automobile suspensions, the author mentions the elements that contribute to riding comfort. He then outlines what he considers a good suspension, tabulating the spring dimensions of five hypothetical cars, typical of those on the American market. Curves of spring deflection are included in the paper. Functions of rear springs, the damping effect essential in good suspensions, “thin leaf” springs and spring lubrication are next discussed. In conclusion the author covers means of improving a car's riding qualities and cites a very interesting test for determining spring performance by means of the impressions made on a photographic plate by light from electric lamps mounted on wheels and fenders of an automobile and on the passengers.
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