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Technical Paper

THE FUTURE PASSENGER CAR

1919-01-01
190052
Progress toward a single standard type of car is not being made. Many different styles will continue to be needed to satisfy requirements of taste, ability, power and speed. Open cars, the backbone of production in the early days, are less in demand. Enclosed cars are already to be had in practically every grade. While there is a trend toward lighter weight the demand for increased luxury and greater safety makes it seemingly impossible to reduce weight in either equipment or body. Just what the result of this conflict of ideas is to be is not easy to predict. The author foresees considerable improvement in design and workmanship, a gain in economy of fuel, greater use of oil in lubricating chassis parts besides the engine, increased durability and fewer objectionable noises.
Technical Paper

TORQUE RECOIL AND CAR WEIGHT

1919-01-01
190053
Few points have aroused such discussion among users and engineers as that of the desirable number of cylinders in an engine. A large part of the work of the author has been in the direction of attaining the same ends as those achieved by the multi-cylinder engine but by different means. He discusses the relations between torque at clutch and number of cylinders and multicylinder engines and uniform torque, the factors governing torque recoil, torque recoil as a function of car weight and engine balance. His conclusion is that the multi-cylinder engine now so widely used exceeds the real requirements and obtains its smoothness of operation at the expense of more desirable qualities. A reduction in car weight would in his opinion enable existing standards of performance to be maintained and even improved by the use of four cylinders for the heavier type, with all that this means in tremendous advantages to the automotive industry and to the user.
Technical Paper

THE PASSENGER CAR OF THE FUTURE

1919-01-01
190051
The limit of acceleration has been reached. What may well be considered a maximum for practical service has been secured. The present seven-passenger body is as roomy as could be desired. There should be no need for further increase in size. The author believes the total weight of this large car will be reduced to between 3500 to 4000 lb. To make this reduction without sacrifice of durability greater use must be made of alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The tendency in body design and style is toward smoother lines, fewer breaks and a more graceful contour. The number of closed cars is increasing. There will be a general simplification of detail throughout, better wiring, better lubrication, an increased use of oilless bushings and fewer grease-cups. Brakes and wearing parts will be made more accessible and easier of adjustment. The take-up points for the various adjustments will be placed so that they can be reached with ease.
Technical Paper

RADIO TELEPHONY

1919-01-01
190048
In a rapid and illuminating sketch of the early work done in electricity and magnetism the subtle and close connection between pure research and so-called industrial research is shown. Building on the work of Faraday, Maxwell and Hertz, Marconi, in our day, had the confidence to do the practical thing. From the Hertz oscillating system he passed to grounded antennas at both sending and receiving stations. From the well-understood tuning of electrical circuits and the coherer of Professor Branly he secured increased efficiency and selectivity. Mr. Edison, following the early work of J. J. Thomson at Cambridge University, England, devised the first practical application of the electron apparatus, the Edison relay. The vacuum tube became in the radio field an amplifier, an oscillator and a modulator, the audion. In addition to these interesting developments are the Poulsen arc, the Alexanderson alternator and other alternators of German design.
Technical Paper

THE FUTURE PASSENGER CAR

1919-01-01
190049
Efficiency, appearance and comfort will be the catchwords of the car of the future. Extreme simplicity of chassis will be needed to reduce weight and permit the use of substantial sheet-metal fenders, mud-guards and bodies. The center of gravity should be as low as possible consistent with good appearance. For comfort the width and angle of seats will be studied more carefully and the doors will be wider. A new type of spring suspension is coming to the fore, known as the three-point cantilever. Cars adopting it will have a certain wheelbase and a longer spring base. A car equipped with this new mechanism has been driven at 60 m.p.h. in safety and comfort without the use of shock absorbers or snubbers. It is the opinion of the author that this new spring suspension will revolutionize passenger-car construction.
Technical Paper

STEEL TRUCK WHEELS

1919-01-01
190046
In the past the majority of trucks have been equipped with wood wheels. These gave good service, but the results demanded under strenuous modern conditions seem, the author states, to make the substitution of steel wheels on medium and heavy-duty trucks imperative. Truck engineers and builders seem to recognize the fact, but to hesitate to make the change, chiefly because a metal wheel is somewhat higher in first cost and because some designs have not as yet rendered the service expected of them. The service return of metal wheels is given from the records and reports of the London General Omnibus Co. and the Fifth Avenue Coach Co., both of which use steel wheels exclusively. The added mileage is in excess of wood-wheel service and exceptional tire mileage is shown. The author states briefly the arguments for the hollow-spoke, hollow-rim, the hollow full-flaring spoke and the integral-hub metal wheels.
Technical Paper

RUST PREVENTION

1919-01-01
190047
Iron rust is caused by electrolytic action between the various constituents of iron or steel in the presence of moisture and impurities. It is a continuous process; a coating of rust does not protect the metal underneath. The principal requirements of a rust-prevention process as applied to automobiles, aircraft and other machined and hardened parts are that it (1) Prevent rusting under normal use (2) Prevent the spreading of rust (3) Make no change in dimensions or fits (4) Make no alterations in physical properties (5) Be permanent for the life of the part (6) Be easy and quick of application (7) Be commercially practicable as to cost Of the most familiar rust-proofing processes, the cold, the hot and the high-temperature, the last is eliminated by requirements (3) and (4), while the cold processes and also japanning are eliminated by (2), (3) and (5). There remain three hot processes, the Parker, the Coslett and the Guerini.
Technical Paper

RELATION OF MOTOR-TRUCK ABILITY TO TREND OF DESIGN

1919-01-01
190044
The paper treats the subject of ability from the point of view of its relation to the present trend in motor-truck design, setting forth some of the fundamental considerations involved. An ability formula when applied to automotive vehicles is to determine a “factor of experience” from which engine sizes and gear ratios can be calculated. While passenger-car performance is measured in terms of speed and acceleration, the latter are not the most important considerations in motor trucks, the speed of which is limited by the use of a governor. Wind resistance also is negligible at truck speeds. Practically the only resistances to be overcome by a motor truck are road friction and the force of gravity. Both road and grade resistance are in direct proportion to weight carried and are usually expressed in terms of pounds per pound.
Technical Paper

THE ENGINE-FUEL PROBLEM

1919-01-01
190045
The engine-fuel situation has changed almost overnight. Oil-consuming activities have taken on an accelerated expansion and the situation has shifted from excess supply to a position where demand is assuming the lead and is seeking a supply. A gasoline stringency, accompanied presumably by a marked rise in price, is a prospect to be anticipated. The production of gasoline is increasing more rapidly than the production of its raw material, crude petroleum. The available supply of the latter is very limited in view of the size of the demand. As a direct result of the situation, gasoline is changing in character and becoming progressively less volatile. The low thermal efficiency of the prevailing type of automotive apparatus contributes strongly to the demand for gasoline as engine fuel and has a bearing upon the quantity and the price of this specialized fuel.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR DRAWBAR IMPLEMENTS AND THEIR HITCHES

1919-01-01
190042
THE author believes a more thorough understanding of the functions and use of drawbar implements is necessary. The tractor is incidental to agriculture. The implements used with tractors do the actual work and the tractor is a means to that end. Many tractors are sold on the quality of work done by the implements, and not because of their own work. Many a tractor is condemned because the implement combination is not correct. The amount of draft of plows must be thoroughly understood. Good plowing requires considerably more power than poor plowing, although done at the same depth and width. Turning the same number of square inches of furrow section will in one case require from 20 to 30 per cent more power than in another.
Technical Paper

VARIABLE-SPEED GOVERNORS

1919-01-01
190043
THE ordinary governor used on trucks and tractors is essentially a one-speed device. It gives good results at one speed, but at higher speeds “hunting” develops and at lower speeds governing is less accurate. This is because the spring must be stiff enough for maximum speed, and hence four times stiffer than it should be for half speed. The paper shows by calculations and curves the best results that can possibly be obtained; also, curves from a test showing what results are actually obtained with one well-known governor. Two new types of governor are described; in which the position of the spring is varied for different speeds. Theoretical curves also are presented and the results of tests, indicating that the new types produce the same character of curve at 800 as at 1600 r.p.m.
Technical Paper

RADIATOR COOLING FANS

1919-01-01
190041
IN the cooling system for an automobile engine, the water-jacket must be designed to give ample capacity and free flow of the water. It is essential that water-pump capacities and speeds be figured to equal the radiator capacity so as not to retard the flow of water through the radiator and cause hot water to back up into the cylinder; the radiator must always be kept full and still handle the water as fast as the pump carries it. Fan locations are necessarily considered with relation to the radiator and radiator shroud. Fan diameters, blade path and fan speeds should be given thought, in order that the proper volume of air can be handled to carry heat from the engine. The frontal area of the radiator core in square feet per horsepower developed by the engine and several other details which can be worked out by the fan and radiator manufacturers should receive attention. The best possible fan bearings must be used, giving special attention to radial and thrust loads, fan speeds, etc.
Technical Paper

MINNEAPOLIS SECTION PAPERS - CARBURETER AIR CLEANERS

1919-01-01
190040
DURING the war the trend of tractor engine design toward increased efficiency resulted in many improvements and discoveries in accessories, not the least of which is the carbureter air-cleaner. The value of air-cleaners is now fully recognized and they are used as standard equipment on the majority of tractors. Air-cleaners are classified into groups as follows: (a) cleaners having cloths or screens, or both, to catch dust; (b) inertia cleaners; (c) those employing water or some other liquid to trap dirt and (d) centrifugal or gravity cleaners. The first class is practically obsolete; illustrations of two of this type are shown. Inertia cleaners are not widely used, but present possibilities. Liquid cleaners of various designs are in considerable use. The author believes that the slight advantage in efficiency of this type over the better class of dry-type cleaners is not sufficient to compensate for their greater size and difficulty of operation.
Technical Paper

THE HIGH-COMPRESSION OIL ENGINE

1919-01-01
190039
THE ever-increasing demand for highly volatile fuels and constantly decreasing volatility, constitute a serious problem. Synthetic fuels have been suggested as a remedy, but these require a change in carburetion methods. It is the author's conviction that, if any redesigning is necessary, this should embody a combustion method by which any of the existing liquid hydrocarbons can be utilized and further change of method obviated, if a new fuel should later be developed. The high-compression engine is presented as a solution. Proof is offered that by its adoption any liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be utilized under any temperature condition and a real saving in fuel accomplished through increased thermal efficiency. Sustained effort should be made along these lines to increase thermal efficiency and provide an engine of adequate power, flexibility, ease of control and ability to operate on any of the fuels obtainable now or later.
Technical Paper

MID-WEST SECTION PAPERS - LUBRICATION AND FUEL TESTS ON BUDA TRACTOR TYPE ENGINE

1919-01-01
190038
THE rapid development of heavy-duty trucks and farm tractors has made it necessary for manufacturers of engines used in such automotive apparatus to face problems regarding which there is no past experience to fall back upon. The necessity in both types of engine for maximum strength in all parts carrying excessive loads constitutes a problem of great importance, but in addition to it are others of the proper utilization of fuels at present available, lubrication under excessive load conditions over long periods of time; and, of nearly as much importance, the relation of fuels to lubricants and the effect of fuels upon lubricants. Moreover, information is to be acquired regarding the value of prospective fuels as power producers, the effects they have upon engines, lubricants, etc., comparisons of cost and the like. The tests recorded in the paper were made in an endeavor to ascertain some of these unknown values.
Technical Paper

HOT SURFACE OIL ENGINES FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES

1919-01-01
190036
THE oil engines described are for stationary or land installations and are of the “hot-surface” design with combustion at constant volume. Progress in the design is referred to and the thermal efficiency of modern designs is compared with that found in engines twenty-five years ago. Three important features are reviewed, namely: (a) Reliability, (b) first cost and (c) economy. Improvements in the design of spraying devices, and other details of construction which have brought about greater reliability, are referred to. Dimensions of large two and four-cycle oil engines are given, and the first costs of each type are contrasted. The greater economy of the modern oil engine as compared with the earlier type is explained. Indicator cards, test data, speed, weights and other details of interest are enumerated concerning the De La Vergne SI type of oil engine, this being an example of the results obtained in a modern hot-surface-type oil engine.
Technical Paper

ADAPTING THE FUEL TO THE ENGINE1

1919-01-01
190035
BUREAU of Mines refinery statistics for the calendar year 1918 show a production of different types of petroleum fuel products represented by the following approximate figures: Added to this are 3,100,000,000 gal. of crude oil, used as fuel without refining. The statistics do not distinguish the different classes of fuel oils, and the following provisional estimate has been made: Processing or refining costs for the different oils are difficult to estimate and of little significance in determining the selling price, which is controlled by the law of supply and demand. All types in the last list can be used in so-called heavy-oil engines, but the gas oil and light residuum are most desirable in the order given. They are less plentiful than the heavy-residuum type which generally cannot be used without special equipment for preheating. The proportionate yield of gas oil can be increased if a sufficient demand is developed.
Technical Paper

CONDITIONS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY ABROAD

1919-01-01
190034
THE author's observations cover the period immediately following the war when, as a member of a party of representative guests of the British and French governments, he toured England, meeting Government officials and talking on industrial matters; visited Scotland's shipbuilding and coal areas; viewed the battle area, aircraft, automobile and tractor factories in France; and traveled in Italy, later returning to England to inspect factories, conduct investigations and review Government activities. The enormous expansion of the automotive industry factories of the Allied nations is emphasized and their organization and methods briefly described, with running comment on comparative practice in the United States. Factory production methods in England are mentioned, as well as working conditions and welfare work there. Considerable information relating to post-war automobile designs and to motor-truck and tractor practice is given.
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