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Technical Paper

MOTOR RAIL-CARS 1

1924-01-01
240048
Referring to the McKeen gasoline-driven car and one of the gasoline-electric type that were introduced in the early part of the present century and were the pioneers among self-propelled cars for railroad use, the author ascribes their limited success to their excessive weight and to engine and transmission troubles. Both these types, he thinks, might have been developed successfully had the gasoline engine been in its present state of efficiency and reliability. The early attempts having been more or less unsuccessful, the construction of all types was discontinued during the war. More recently the progress in the design and construction of highway motor-trucks has caused them to be adapted to railroad service by applying flanged tires to the rear wheels, pivotal pony-trucks forward and a motorbus body for the carrying of passengers and a limited amount of baggage.
Technical Paper

WATER RECOVERY FOR AIRSHIPS

1924-01-01
240058
Describing how the total weight of an airship becomes less as its flight continues and how its elevators can be used to keep the airship's nose pointed downward, thus balancing the excess lift by “dynamic lift,” the author says that 5 hr. is about the limit of flight for which the too great lightness can be overcome in this fashion safely, explains how different the conditions become on long flights and gives details of the means used to counteract this rising tendency. Valving of gas to overcome airship lightness is wasteful and costly, especially when the craft is inflated with helium gas but, if this is not done, some substance must be collected and stored at the same rate as that at which fuel is consumed in the engines and the most practicable method seems to be to recover water from the exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT IN NAVAL AERONAUTICS

1924-01-01
240057
Principal developments along the lines of the HS, H-16 and F-5-L types of seaplane, which were used during the war for convoy work, submarine patrol and scouting, are represented by present types PN-7, equipped with Wright T-2 engines, and PN-8, having Wright T-3 engines, a metal hull and metal tail-surfaces. Brief statements about their construction and performance are made and the subject of metal floats for seaplanes is discussed. “Training,” scouting and other types of seaplane are mentioned, and outlines given of their characteristics and performance. Launching airplanes from a catapult is described, some details of the development of the apparatus being given, and reference is made to a late development in which the catapult is actuated by the explosion of a powder charge instead of being operated by compressed air.
Technical Paper

IMPROVED NICKEL-PLATING METHODS

1924-01-01
240053
A practical method of nickel-plating is outlined and the various processes are described by which the Packard Motor Car Co. has been successful in producing a durable coating of nickel on automobile parts in general, and the radiator shells, the rim plates and the tire-carrier plates, in particular. These are the parts of greatest exposure, and for plating them a new system of moving-cathode tanks was installed. The three problems to which special attention was devoted were rusting, pitting and peeling. No effort was made to secure a coating of any designated depth but reliance was placed solely on the results indicated by a 24-hr. salt-spray test, which was considered to be the equivalent of 2 years' exposure to the usual weather conditions. Peeling was overcome by thoroughly cleaning the parts before plating. New equipment was purchased and laid out in accordance with the system decided upon, namely, copper-plating, buffing and nickel-plating.
Technical Paper

FITTING THE HORSE-AND-BUGGY ROAD TO THE AUTOMOBILE

1924-01-01
240055
Public thoroughfares have invariably been laid out to meet the requirements of age-old horse-and-buggy equipment and little thought has been given to the needs of the future. Until the middle of the last century, man was dependent for transportation upon his own strength or upon that of the animals that he could domesticate. Caesar could have traveled from Rome to Paris as quickly as could Napoleon 17 centuries later. Now, the humblest American farmer could make the round-trip with his whole family in less time than either emperor could travel one way. Within the last century have been developed in rapid succession the railroad train, the steamship, the electric trolley-car, the automobile, the motor truck, the tractor and the airplane. The most permanent thing we have is land; the very slowness and regularity with which buildings are replaced tend to make a route and the width in which it is established almost as permanent as the land of which it is a part.
Technical Paper

LAWS GOVERNING GASEOUS DETONATION

1923-01-01
230004
The authors present in this paper an explanation of gaseous detonation based upon what are considered incontrovertible laws, and show by the functioning of these well understood natural laws that gaseous detonation is a phenomenon that does not require any hypothetical assumptions to account for its existence. The physical conditions that must exist within an enclosed container when it is filled with an explosive mixture of gases and these gases are ignited are stated and analyzed mathematically, and an application of this analysis is made to the internal-combustion engine. The apparatus and the procedure are described inclusive of photographs and charts, and it is shown how the formulas can be applied (a) for constant throttle, by varying the temperature of the entering charge and (b) for constant temperature, by varying the throttle opening and the compression-ratio. The results are illustrated and discussed in some detail.
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