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Technical Paper

PROCESSING SPLINE SHAFTS BY A NEW METHOD1

1922-01-01
220058
The process devised by the author was evolved to eliminate the difficulties incident to the finishing of the spline and body portions of a spline shaft, such as is used in transmission gearing, by grinding after the shaft has been hardened, and is the result of a series of experiments. The accuracy of the finished shaft was the primary consideration and three other groups of important considerations are stated, as well as four specific difficulties that were expected to appear upon departure from former practice. Illustrations are presented to show the tools used, and the method of using them is commented upon step by step. The shaft can be straightened to within 0.005 in. per ft. of being out of parallel with the true axis of the shaft, after the shaft has been hardened, and it is then re-centered true with the spline portion.
Technical Paper

FORD ENGINE-CYLINDER PRODUCTION

1922-01-01
220059
The authors state the principles governing intensive quantity-production and describe the sources and methods of handling the basic materials that compose the Ford engine-cylinder. The fundamental plan of the River Rouge plant is outlined, illustrations being used to supplement the text that explains the reasons governing the location of the various units of the plant. Details are given of the use made of conveyors with the idea of keeping everything moving. The relation of the blast furnace and coke ovens to the engine cylinder are commented upon, the powerhouse and foundry are described, and the production of the cylinder is set forth step by step.
Technical Paper

SOME CAUSES OF GEAR-TOOTH ERRORS AND THEIR DETECTION

1922-01-01
220056
The different gear noises are classified under the names of knock, rattle, growl, hum and sing, and these are discussed at some length, examples of defects that cause noise being given and a device for checking tooth spacing being illustrated and described. An instrument for analyzing tooth-forms that produce these different noises is illustrated and described. Causes of the errors in gears may be in the hardening process, in the cutting machines or in the cutters. A hobbing machine is used as an example and its possibilities for error are commented upon. Tooth-forms are illustrated and treated briefly, and the hardening of gears and the grinding of gear-tooth forms are given similar attention.
Technical Paper

PERTINENT FACTS CONCERNING MALLEABLE-IRON CASTINGS

1922-01-01
220020
Annual Meeting Paper - Addressing the structural engineer and the purchasing agent particularly, the author discusses the relationship between them and the foundryman with regard to malleable-iron castings and enumerates foundry difficulties. The characteristics necessitating adequate gating for such castings are described and illustrated, inclusive of considerations regarding pattern design, followed by a statement of the considerations that should influence the purchasing agent when dealing with foundrymen. Possible casting defects are described, illustrated and discussed, comment being made upon casting shrinkage and machinability. Improvements in annealing-oven construction and operation are reviewed and the records of 100 consecutive heats in different plants are tabulated. The materials for casting that compete with malleable iron are mentioned and its physical characteristics are considered in some detail.
Technical Paper

CONTINUOUS DIE-ROLLING

1922-01-01
220021
The process of continuous die-rolling and the products possible with this method of manufacture are described and illustrated. The improvements that have been made were the result of efforts to produce more complicated sections by this process, with greater accuracy, and these are discussed at some length. The physical characteristics of steel that must be considered are commented upon and forming that is effected in one pass is described, consideration being given the requirements of rolled forging blanks. The cost of operation is treated and the equipment used is discussed, showing how this process differs from other methods of making the same things, as to both the operations necessary and the character of the product.
Technical Paper

MANUFACTURE AND APPLICATION OF AUTOMOBILE VARNISHES

1922-01-01
220023
Dividing the ability of an automobile finish to remain new into the elements of proper quality of the materials, engineering of application systems, methods of application and care of the finish, the author states that the responsibility for them rests jointly upon the manufacturer of the varnishes and paints, the builder of the automobile and the owner of the finished product. Five basic materials that are necessary in automobile painting are specified and discussed. Engineering systems of application and the actual methods of application are treated in some detail, inclusive of drying, and of surfacing or rubbing. The care of the finish is important and the precautions necessary in this regard are outlined. The paper deals with the application and not the manufacture of the different varnishes and paints that are mentioned.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR AND PLOW REACTIONS TO VARIOUS HITCHES

1922-01-01
220017
The authors enumerate some of the questions that are involved and, after outlining a previous paper on the subject of plows, analyze these questions in part by the aid of diagrams and applied mathematics. Comparative draft data are presented in tabular form and commented upon, as well as comparative hitch-length data. Tractor reactions are explained and discussed in some detail in a similar manner, special attention being given to the reactions on a slope and up-hill. The reactions on cross-furrow slopes are considered, comparisons being made between two tractors that were reported upon in the University of Nebraska tests. The factors involving tractor stability and resistance against overturn are analyzed. The authors state that the analysis presents a definite method of attack for the more correct solution of the proper hitching-point, as well as being a study relating to lug design.
Technical Paper

BODY SEATING-DIMENSIONS

1922-01-01
220016
The dimensions of automobile-body seats receive consideration with regard to the features that are conducive to comfort. A diagram is presented upon which the dimensions treated are indicated, and a tabulation of seat dimensions of 12 representative cars is included. Comments are made upon the factors influencing seat dimensions, as well as recommendations regarding the different desirable dimensions. The considerations are inclusive of cushion height, depth and slope, leg-room and head-room, upholstery shape and softness of trimming, foot-rest and other control-element locations, factors influencing entrance and egress provisions, seat widths and advisable front and rear-compartment heights. The author recommends the standardization of a range of locations for the different control elements.
Technical Paper

DROP-FORGING PRACTICE

1922-01-01
220019
The author discusses drop-forging practice from the standpoint of the materials used, and strongly advocates a more rigid inspection and testing of raw materials to determine their fitness for use in making automotive forgings. Seven specific possibilities of actual difference between drop-forgings that are apparently identical are stated, the requirements of the inspection of raw stock are commented upon, and the heat-treatment and testing of finished forgings are considered at some length. Tabular data of the chemical analyses and physical properties of 107 different heats of carbon-steel used recently are presented and show a variation in drawing temperatures of 140 deg. fahr. in steels of practically the same chemical composition to meet the same physical-property specification, based on more than 1000 tests on this grade of steel taken from production stock. The concluding summary has five specific divisions.
Technical Paper

THE RELATION OF THE TRACTOR TO THE FARM IMPLEMENT

1922-01-01
220018
Stating that the trend of tractor development must be toward the small tractor that is capable of handling all of the power work on a farm, the author quotes farm and crop-acreage statistics and outlines diversified farming requirements, inclusive of row-crop cultivation. Tractor requirements are stated to be for a sturdy compact design to meet the demands of the diversified farm, which include plowing, seeding, cultivating, hauling and belt-power usage, and these requirements are commented upon in general terms. Consideration is given to farm implements in connection with tractor operation, and the placing of cultivating implements ahead of the tractor is advocated.
Technical Paper

AIR-COOLED CYLINDER DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT

1922-01-01
220012
The paper reviews some of the salient points arising in the design and development of the modern high-output air-cooled cylinder. It is based to a very large extent upon the work of Dr. A. H. Gibson at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, which in turn was principally a development of the pioneer efforts of Renault, supplemented by some post-war work of the author for British companies and tests made by the engineering division of the Air Service. While the paper may, therefore, lack somewhat in originality, many of the results presented, it is stated, have not been published previously. The problems of an aircraft cylinder of approximately 40 b.hp. are dealt with primarily, but some aspects of automobile-engine cylinder design are considered. The first point treated is the heat to be dissipated, this being followed by a consideration of how to secure an even temperature-distribution in the various parts of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

AIR-COOLED ENGINE DEVELOPMENT

1922-01-01
220013
The development of air-cooled engines for aircraft never made much progress until the war, when the British attempted to improve the performance of existing engines by a series of experiments leading eventually to the development of aluminum cylinders with steel liners and aluminum cylinder-heads with a steel cylinder screwed into the head. The advantages of these constructions and the disadvantages of other types are discussed. Results are reported of tests at McCook Field on a modern cylinder-design of this type showing good results, that lead to the belief that large air-cooled engines will be produced in the near future, equal in performance to water-cooled engines of the same power.
Technical Paper

PASSENGER-CAR BRAKES

1922-01-01
220015
Stating that the problem of deceleration is just as important and necessary of solution as is the one of providing car-acceleration ability, the author gives a comprehensive survey of present braking practice and outlines future requirements and possibilities. Design factors are considered at length, as well as the subject of what constitutes uniform and effective braking-power, various illustrations and descriptions being included of different types of brake. Brake-actuating means, the calculation of brake-drum size, car-stoppage ability, brake equalizers and brake-linings are commented upon in some detail. The future of brakes is discussed with reference to the use of the engine as a brake, four-wheel and front-wheel brakes, the servo principle of brake operation and various novel braking methods. A brief summary of what is considered good practice with regard to truck brakes is appended.
Technical Paper

THE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROPERTY OF OILINESS

1922-01-01
220009
The term “oiliness” is defined as that property of lubricants by virtue of which one fluid gives lower coefficients of friction (generally at slow speeds or high loads) than another fluid of the same viscosity. Its importance under practical operating conditions is shown to be greater than is generally recognized. Unfortunately, however, no satisfactory method has ever been developed for the quantitative measurement of this property in comparing different lubricants.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPING A METHOD FOR TESTING BRAKE-LININGS

1922-01-01
220014
As a result of the general policy of the Motor Transport Corps to standardize the materials used for automotive vehicles for Army Service, in cooperation with the Bureau of Standards, the Society of Automotive Engineers and the automotive industry, the Bureau of Standards has been engaged for some time in developing a standard method for testing brake-linings. While the work is not complete, much information has been gained. This paper reports the progress of the work. The equipment developed and the methods used for both main and supplementary tests are described. Information is given regarding the coefficient of friction, as influenced by various factors. The endurance test, showing the comparative behavior of linings under conditions similar to those of severe service, is believed to be satisfactory as developed. Further work is necessary before recommending the conditions for the other test, intended to determine the relative endurance under ordinary or light service.
Technical Paper

THE MECHANISM OF LUBRICATION

1922-01-01
220008
The authors state that the coefficient of friction between two rubbing surfaces is influenced by a very large number of variables, the most important being, in the case of an oiled journal, the nature and the shape of the surfaces, their smoothness, the clearance between the journal and the bearing, the viscosity of the oil, the “film-forming” tendency or “oiliness” of the oil, the speed of rubbing, the pressure on the bearing, the method of supplying the lubricant and the temperature. The primary object of the paper is to present the best available data regarding the fundamental mechanism of lubrication so as to afford a basis for predicting the precise effect of these different variables under any specified conditions. Definitions of the terms used are given and the laws of fluid-film lubrication are discussed, theoretical curves for “ideal” bearings being treated at length.
Technical Paper

RELATION OF FLUID FRICTION TO TRANSMISSION EFFICIENCY

1922-01-01
220011
That all of the variable factors of automobile friction-losses such as the quantity and viscosity of lubricants, the efficiency of worm-gearing and part-load Modifications are not appreciated, is indicated by an examination of the literature on this subject which reveals a lack of necessary data. Experiments to determine the mechanical losses, including all friction losses between the working gases in the engine and the driving-wheels of the vehicle, are described and supplementary data are included from Professor Lockwood's experiments at Yale. Three distinct possibilities for increasing the fuel economy of a motor vehicle are specified and enlarged upon, gearset experiments to secure and develop data for a four-speed gearset being then described and commented upon at length; photographs and charts illustrative of the equipment used and the resultant data are included.
Technical Paper

VAPORIZATION OF MOTOR-FUELS

1922-01-01
220036
The author gives a brief and purely qualitative treatment of what a vapor is, where it comes from and how it appears; the necessity of vaporizing a liquid fuel before attempting to burn it; the separate effects of the conditions that control vaporization; and the heat-balance of vaporization. This is done to summarize the conditions surrounding and controlling fuel vaporization in the cycle of operation of a throttle-controlled internal-combustion engine, fitted with an intake-manifold and a carbureter. Charts and photographs are included and commented upon, descriptions being given of actual demonstrations that were made at the time the paper was presented. The conclusion is reached that it is well to depend as little as possible upon the cylinder heat and temperature to complete the vaporization of the fuel.
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