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Technical Paper

Combined CFD and CAA Simulations with Impedance Boundary Conditions

2021-08-31
2021-01-1048
In computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulations, the wall surface is normally treated as a purely reflective wall. However, some surface treatments are usually applied in experiments. Thus, the acoustic simulations cannot be validated by experimental results. One of the major challenges is how to define acoustically boundary conditions in a well-posed way. In aeroacoustics analysis, impedance is a quantity to characterize reflectivity and absorption of an acoustically treated surface, which may be introduced into the numerical models as a frequency-domain boundary condition. However, CFD and CAA simulations are time-domain computations, meaning the frequency-domain impedance boundary condition cannot be adopted directly. Several methods, including the three-parameter model, the z-transform method and the reflection coefficient model, were developed.
Technical Paper

Detection of Pinion Grinding Defects in a Nested Planetary Gear System using a Narrowband Demodulation Approach

2021-08-31
2021-01-1100
Nested planetary gear trains, which consist of two integrated co-axial single-stage planetary gearsets, have recently been widely implemented in automobile transmissions and various other applications. In the current study, a non-destructive vibrational and acoustical monitoring technique is developed to detect a common type of gear grinding defect for a complex nested gear train structure. A nested gear train which has an unground pinion with unpolished teeth profile is used to exemplify the developed methodology. An experimental test stand with an open and vertical mounting configuration has been designed to acquire both vibrational and acoustical data. The measured data are investigated using several signal processing techniques to identify unground pinions in the gear system. A general frequency spectrum analysis is performed initially, which is then followed by a peak finding algorithm to identify the peaks in the spectrum.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Acoustic Model for Composite Materials Composed of Fibers and High Surface Area Particles

2021-08-31
2021-01-1127
High surface area particles have drawn attention in the context of noise control due to their good sound absorption performance at low frequencies, which is an advantage compared with more traditional materials. That observation suggests that there is a good potential to use these particles in various scenarios, especially where low frequency noise is the main concern. To facilitate their application, composite materials are formed by dispersing particles within a fiber matrix, thus giving more flexibility in positioning those particles. In this work, a hybrid model that combines a model for limp porous materials and a model of high surface area particles is proposed to describe the acoustic performance of such composites. Two-microphone standing wave tube test results for several types of composites with different thickness, basis weight, and particle concentration are provided.
Technical Paper

FE Simulation of Split in Fundamental Air-Cavity Mode of Loaded Tires: Comparison with Empirical Results

2021-08-31
2021-01-1064
Tire/road noise has become a significant issue in the automotive industry, especially for electric vehicles. Among the various tire/road noise sources, the air-cavity mode can amplify the forces transmitted from the tire to the suspension system causing noticeable cabin noise near 200 Hz. Furthermore, when the tire is deformed by loading, the fundamental air-cavity mode separates into two acoustic modes, a fore-aft mode and vertical mode due to the break in geometrical symmetry. This is important because the two components of the split mode can increase force levels at the hub by interacting with neighboring structural modes, thus resulting in increased interior noise levels. In this research, finite element simulations of five commercial tires at rated load were performed with a view to identifying the frequency split and its interaction with structural resonances. These results have been compared with previously obtained empirical results.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of Eco-Driving and Eco-Heating Strategies for Connected and Automated HEVs

2021-04-06
2021-01-0435
This paper presents experimental results that validate eco-driving and eco-heating strategies developed for connected and automated vehicles (CAVs). By exploiting vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, traffic signal timing, and queue length estimations, optimized and smoothed speed profiles for the ego-vehicle are generated to reduce energy consumption. Next, the planned eco-trajectories are incorporated into a real-time predictive optimization framework that coordinates the cabin thermal load (in cold weather) with the speed preview, i.e., eco-heating. To enable eco-heating, the engine coolant (as the only heat source for cabin heating) and the cabin air are leveraged as two thermal energy storages. Our eco-heating strategy stores thermal energy in the engine coolant and cabin air while the vehicle is driving at high speeds, and releases the stored energy slowly during the vehicle stops for cabin heating without forcing the engine to idle to provide the heating source.
Technical Paper

High-Speed 3D Optical Sensing and Information Processing for Automotive Industry

2021-04-06
2021-01-0303
This paper explains the basic principles behind two platform technologies that my research team has developed in the field of optical metrology and optical information processing: 1) high-speed 3D optical sensing; and 2) real-time 3D video compression and streaming. This paper will discuss how such platform technologies could benefit the automotive industry including in-situ quality control for additive manufacturing and autonomous vehicle systems. We will also discuss some of other applications that we have been working on such as crime scene capture in forensics.
Technical Paper

Friction Force Reduction for Electrical Terminals using Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Coating

2021-04-06
2021-01-0348
Electrical connectors and terminals are widely used in the automotive industry. It is desirable to mate the electrical connections using materials or coatings with low friction force to improve the ergonomics of the assembly process while maintaining good electrical conduction over the lifetime of the vehicle. We have previously shown that plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of graphene on gold (Au) and silver (Ag) terminals can significantly reduce the insertion force (friction force during the terminal insertion process). However, the cost of this deposition method is rather high, and its high temperature process (> 400 oC) makes it impractical for materials with low melting temperatures. For example, tin (Sn) coating with a melting temperature of 232 oC is commonly used in electrical connectors, which cannot sustain the high temperature process. In this study, reduced graphene oxide was prepared using a low-cost solution process and applied onto metallic terminals.
Technical Paper

Bayesian Optimization of Active Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

2021-04-06
2021-01-0765
The design of better active materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is crucial to satisfy the increasing demand of high performance batteries for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Currently, the development of new active materials is driven by physical experimentation and the designer’s intuition and expertise. During the development process, the designer interprets the experimental data to decide the next composition of the active material to be tested. After several trial-and-error iterations of data analysis and testing, promising active materials are discovered but after long development times (months or even years) and the evaluation of a large number of experiments. Bayesian global optimization (BGO) is an appealing alternative for the design of active materials for LIBs. BGO is a gradient-free optimization methodology to solve design problems that involve expensive black-box functions. An example of a black-box function is the prediction of the cycle life of LIBs.
Journal Article

Implementation of Thermomechanical Multiphysics in a Large-Scale Three-Dimensional Topology Optimization Code

2021-04-06
2021-01-0844
Due to the inherent computational cost of multiphysics topology optimization methods, it is a common practice to implement these methods in two-dimensions. However most real-world multiphysics problems are best optimized in three-dimensions, leading to the necessity for large-scale multiphysics topology optimization codes. To aid in the development of these codes, this paper presents a general thermomechanical topology optimization method and describes how to implement the method into a preexisting large-scale three-dimensional topology optimization code. The weak forms of the Galerkin finite element models are fully derived for mechanical, thermal, and coupled thermomechanical physics models. The objective function for the topology optimization method is defined as the weighted sum of the mechanical and thermal compliance. The corresponding sensitivity coefficients are derived using the direct differentiation method and are verified using the complex-step method.
Journal Article

Multilevel Design of Sandwich Composite Armors for Blast Mitigation using Bayesian Optimization and Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines

2021-04-06
2021-01-0255
In regions at war, the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is the main threat against military vehicles. Large cabin”s penetrations and high gross accelerations are primary threats against the occupants” survivability. The occupants” survivability under an IED event largely depends on the design of the vehicle armor. Under a blast load, a vehicle armor should maintain its structural integrity while providing low cabin penetrations and low gross accelerations. This investigation employs Bayesian global optimization (BGO) and non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) to design sandwich composite armors that simultaneously mitigate the cabin”s penetrations and the reaction force at the armor”s supports. The armors are made of four layers: steel, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aluminum honeycomb, and CFRP.
Journal Article

Graphene Coating as a Corrosion Protection Barrier for Metallic Terminals in Automotive Environments

2021-04-06
2021-01-0354
Inside an automobile, hundreds of connectors and electrical terminals in various locations experience different corrosive environments. These connectors and electrical terminals need to be corrosion-proof and provide a good electrical contact for a vehicle’s lifetime. Saltwater and sulfuric acid are some of the main corrosion concerns for these electrical terminals. Currently, various thin metallic layers such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), or tin (Sn) are plated with a nickel (Ni) layer on copper alloy (Cu) terminals to ensure reliable electrical conduction during service. Graphene due to its excellent chemical stability can serve as a corrosion protective layer and prevent electrochemical oxidation of metallic terminals. In this work, effects of thin graphene layers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on Au and Ag terminals and thin-film devices were investigated. Various mechanical, thermal/humidity, and electrical tests were performed.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Probability-Based Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory on Dilemma Zone Exposure

2020-04-14
2020-01-0116
Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA) systems have the objective of providing a recommended speed to arrive at a traffic signal during the green phase of the cycle. GLOSA has been shown to decrease travel time, fuel consumption, and carbon emissions; simultaneously, it has been demonstrated to increase driver and passenger comfort. Few studies have been conducted using historical cycle-by-cycle phase probabilities to assess the performance of a speed advisory capable of recommending a speed for various traffic signal operating modes (fixed-time, semi-actuated, and fully-actuated). In this study, a GLOSA system based on phase probability is proposed. The probability is calculated prior to each trip from a previous week’s, same time-of-day (TOD) and day-of-week (DOW) period, traffic signal controller high-resolution event data.
Technical Paper

Research on Joining High Pressure Die Casting Parts by Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) Using Ring-Groove Die Comparing to Heat Treatment Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0222
Nowadays, the increasing number of structural high pressure die casting (HPDC) aluminum parts need to be joined with high strength steel (HSS) parts in order to reduce the weight of vehicle for fuel-economy considerations. Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR) has become one of the strongest mechanical joining solutions used in automotive industry in the past several decades. Joining HPDC parts with HSS parts can potentially cause joint quality issues, such as joint button cracks, low corrosion resistance and low joint strength. The appropriate heat treatment will be suggested to improve SPR joint quality in terms of cracks reduction. But the heat treatment can also result in the blister issue and extra time and cost consumption for HPDC parts. The relationship between the microstructure of HPDC material before and after heat treatment with the joint quality is going to be investigated and discussed for interpretation of cracks initiation and propagation during riveting.
Technical Paper

A New Approach of Generating Travel Demands for Smart Transportation Systems Modeling

2020-04-14
2020-01-1047
The transportation sector is facing three revolutions: shared mobility, electrification, and autonomous driving. To inform decision making and guide smart transportation system development at the city-level, it is critical to model and evaluate how travelers will behave in these systems. Two key components in such models are (1) individual travel demands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and (2) travelers’ sociodemographic information and trip purposes. These components impact one’s acceptance of autonomous vehicles, adoption of electric vehicles, and participation in shared mobility. Existing methods of travel demand generation either lack travelers’ demographics and trip purposes, or only generate trips at a zonal level. Higher resolution demand and sociodemographic data can enable analysis of trips’ shareability for car sharing and ride pooling and evaluation of electric vehicles’ charging needs.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Sandwich Composite Armors for Blast Mitigation Using Bayesian Optimization with Single and Multi-Fidelity Data

2020-04-14
2020-01-0170
The most common and lethal weapons against military vehicles are the improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In an explosion, critical cabin’s penetrations and high accelerations can cause serious injuries and death of military personnel. This investigation uses single and multi-fidelity Bayesian optimization (BO) to design sandwich composite armors for blast mitigation. BO is an efficient methodology to solve optimization problems that involve black-box functions. The black-box function of this work is the finite element (FE) simulation of the armor subjected to blast. The main two components of BO are the surrogate model of the black-box function and the acquisition function that guides the optimization. In this investigation, the surrogate models are Gaussian Process (GP) regression models and the acquisition function is the multi-objective expected improvement (MEI) function. Information from low and high fidelity FE models is used to train the GP surrogates.
Technical Paper

Measured Interfacial Residual Strains Produced by In-Flight Ice

2019-06-10
2019-01-1998
The formation of ice on aircraft is a highly dynamic process during which ice will expand and contract upon freezing and undergoing changes in temperature. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations were performed investigating the stress/strain response of an idealized ice sample bonded to an acrylic substrate subjected to a uniform temperature change. The FEA predictions were used to guide the placement of strain gages on custom-built acrylic and aluminum specimens. Tee rosettes were placed in two configurations adjacent to thermocouple sensors. The specimens were then placed in icing conditions such that ice was grown on top of the specimen. It was hypothesized that the ice would expand on freezing and contract as the temperature of the interface returned to the equilibrium conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

2019-06-05
2019-01-1533
Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

2019-04-02
2019-01-0826
Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0842
This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization of Thin-Walled Tubular Structures for Progressive Collapse Using Hybrid Cellular Automaton with a Prescribed Response Field

2019-04-02
2019-01-0837
The design optimization of thin-walled tubular structures is of relevance in the automotive industry due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing and installation, and high-energy absorption efficiency. This study presents a methodology to design thin-walled tubular structures for crashworthiness applications. During an impact, thin-walled tubular structures may exhibit progressive collapse/buckling, global collapse/buckling, or mixed collapse/buckling. From a crashworthiness standpoint, the most desirable collapse mode is progressive collapse due to its high-energy absorption efficiency, stable deformation, and low peak crush force (PCF). In the automotive industry, thin-walled components have complex structural geometries. These complexities and the several loading conditions present in a crash reduce the possibility of progressive collapse. The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method has shown to be an efficient continuum-based approach in crashworthiness design.
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