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Technical Paper

Chemical Analysis and Water Recovery Testing of Shuttle-Mir Humidity Condensate

Humidity condensate collected and processed in-flight is an important component of a space station drinking water supply. Water recovery systems in general are designed to handle finite concentrations of specific chemical components. Previous analyses of condensate derived from spacecraft and ground sources showed considerable variation in composition. Consequently, an investigation was conducted to collect condensate on the Shuttle while the vehicle was docked to Mir, and return the condensate to Earth for testing. This scenario emulates an early ISS configuration during a Shuttle docking, because the atmospheres intermix during docking and the condensate composition should reflect that. During the STS-89 and STS-91 flights, a total volume of 50 liters of condensate was collected and returned. Inorganic and organic chemical analyses were performed on aliquots of the fluid.
Technical Paper

Updated Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate and Urine for the International Space Station

At the initial phase of the construction of the international space station (ISS) water supply will be provided by the systems located in the Russian segment. The paper reviews the systems for water recovery from humidity condensate and urine to be incorporated in the Russian segment of the ISS. The similar systems have been successfully operated on the Mir space station. The updates aim at enhancing system cost-effectiveness and reliability. The system for water recovery from humidity condensate (WRS-C) features an added assembly for the removal of organic contaminants to be catalytically oxidized in an air/liquid flow at ambient temperature and pressure. The system for water reclamation from urine (WRS-U) incorporates a new distillation subsystem based on vacuum distillation with a multistage rotary distiller and a vapor compression or thermoelectric heat pump. The updating of the WRS-C system will enable an increase in the multifiltration bed's life at least two fold.
Technical Paper

Water Supply Based on Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine on a Space Station

The paper reviews an integrated system for space station water supply based on a combination of water recovery systems and a water resupply system. The water balance data and system performance data in long-duration operation on the Mir space station are presented. A water supply concept for the Russian's segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is substantiated.
Technical Paper

Physical/Chemical Regenerative LSS for Planetary Habitations

A concept of LSS building for planetary stations is suggested on the basis of experience in the development, research and testing of physical/chemical regenerative LSS for long-duration ground-based bio-technical complexes of habitat support and for orbiting space stations. A gradual transition from integrated physical/chemical regenerative LSS to hybrid integrated physical/chemical and bio-technical LSS and finally to integrated bio-technical regenerative LSS, is suggested. It is shown that at all phases of integrated LSS development, the systems based on physical/chemical processes will be critical for correlating the interfaces between the biological components that process the products obtained in the bio-components, and enabling the vitality of integrated LSS under emergency situations. The interface of integrated LSS with base power supply system is outlined.
Technical Paper

A Concept of Lunar Base Regenerative Water Management System Construction

A concept of developing a regenerative water management system (RWMS) for first lunar base missions is reviewed. The principal feature of the concept proposed is the maximum possible unification of RWMS for long-duration orbiting station and a lunar base with due regard to possible modification of the hardware for lunar gravity conditions. The paper is based on the expertise in research, development, testing and flight operation of RWMS in Russia. An upgraded RWMS of the International Space Station may be used for first lunar missions.
Technical Paper

Experience in Development and Operation of Systems for Water Recovery from Humidity Condensate for Space Stations

The paper analyzes and summarizes experience in developing and flight operation of the system for potable water recovery from humidity condensate. The system schematic and its hardware are reviewed. The system performance data on Salut and Mir space stations are presented. Succession to the development of a similar system for the International Space Station (ISS) service module is shown.
Technical Paper

Systems for Water Reclamation from Humidity Condensate and Urine for Space Station

This paper deals with water reclamation from humidity condensate and urine schematics and processes realized on orbital space stations Salut and Mir. The results of research in updated processes and schematics for condensate separation, purification and distillation with heat energy recovery are described. It is shown that the processes and hardware make possible to reduce energy demand and the weight of the water recovery systems under operation on space stations.