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e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

2020-11-06
The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process for the Acoustical Excitation of DC-Link Film Capacitors in Highly Integrated Electrical Drivetrains

2020-09-30
2020-01-1500
The advancing electrification of the powertrain is giving rise to new challenges in the field of acoustics. Film capacitors used in power electronics are a potential source of high-frequency interfering noise since they are exposed to voltage harmonics. These voltage harmonics are caused by semiconductor switching operations that are necessary to convert the DC voltage of the battery into three-phase alternating current for an electrical machine. In order to predict the acoustic characteristics of the DC-link capacitor at an early stage of development, a multiphysical chain of effects has to be addressed to consider electrical and mechanical influences. In this paper, a new method to evaluate the excitation amplitude of film capacitor windings is presented. The corresponding amplitudes are calculated via an analytical strain based on electromechanical couplings of the dielectric within film capacitors.
Technical Paper

Advanced CAE Methods for NVH Development of High-Speed Electric Axle

2020-09-30
2020-01-1501
The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years. With intensified development more and more attention is paid to the noise and vibration in such vehicles especially from the EDU (Electric Drive Unit). In this paper the main NVH simulation process of a high-speed E-axle up to 30,000 rpm for premium class vehicle application is presented. The high speed, high-power density and lightweight design introduces new challenges. Benchmarking of different EDUs and vehicles leads to targets which can be used at the early stage of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows the CAE methodology which can be used to verify the design and guarantee the target achievement. Using CAE both source and structure can be optimized to improve the NVH behavior.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

2020-09-30
2020-01-1511
Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Analysis and Structural Optimization of E-Drive Transmission

2020-09-30
2020-01-1578
This paper describes the simulation tool chain serving to design and optimize the transmission of an electric axle drive from concept to final design with respect to NVH. A two-stage transmission of an eAxle is designed from scratch by the initial layout of gears and shafts, including the optimization of gear micro geometry. After the shaft system and bearings are defined, the concept design of the transmission housing is evaluated with the help of a basic topology optimization regarding stiffness and certain eigenfrequencies. In the next step a fully flexible multi-body dynamic (MBD) and acoustic analysis of the transmission is performed using internally calculated excitations due to gear contact and bearing interaction with shaft and gear dynamics for the entire speed and load range. Critical operating conditions in terms of shaft dynamics, structure borne noise and noise radiation are evaluated and selected as target for optimization in the following steps.
Technical Paper

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

2020-09-15
2020-01-2139
The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Technical Paper

FCEV Performance Assessment - Electrochemical Fuel Cell and Battery Modelling on Vehicle Level

2020-04-14
2020-01-0857
Fuel cell electric vehicles are a promising technology to create CO2- neutral mobility. Model-based development approaches are key to reduce costs and to raise efficiencies. A model on vehicle system level is discussed that balances the need of physical depth and computational performance. The vehicle model comprises the domains of mechanics, electrics, thermodynamics, cooling and controls. Detailed models of the fuel cell and battery are presented as a part of the system model. The models apply electrochemical approaches and spatial resolutions up to 3D. The models of both components are validated via 3D reference simulations showing a seamless parameter transfer between system level and CFD-based simulations. The validity of the vehicle model, including the electrochemical components, is demonstrated by simulating the Toyota Mirai vehicle. Simulation results of an NEDC are compared to measurements.
Technical Paper

The Prospect and Benefits of Using the Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes Method for Engine Flows

2020-04-14
2020-01-1107
This paper presents calculations of engine flows by using the Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes (PANS) method (Girimaji [1]; [2]). The PANS is a scale-resolving turbulence computational approach designed to resolve large scale fluctuations and model the remainder with appropriate closures. Depending upon the prescribed cut-off length (filter width) the method adjusts seamlessly from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to the Direct Numerical Solution (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. The PANS method was successfully used for many applications but mainly on static geometries, e.g. Basara et al. [3]; [4]. This is due to the calculation of the cut-off control parameter which requires that the resolved kinetic energy is known and this is usually obtained by suitably averaging of the resolved field. Such averaging process is expensive and impractical for engines as it would require averaging per cycles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Flow Paths due to Leakages of Flammable Liquids by the SPH Method: Application to Real Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1111
One of the most important safety issues for automotive engineering is to avoid any fire due to the ignition of flammable liquids, which may result from leaks. Fire risk is a combination of hot temperature, fast vaporisation and accumulation of vapor in a cavity. In IC engines, potentially flammable liquids are fuel and oil. To guarantee safety, flammable liquids must not come into contact with hot parts of the engine. Consequently, shields are designed to guide the flow path of possible leakages and to take any flammable liquid out of the hot areas. Simulation is a great help to optimize the shape of the shield by investigating a large number of possible leakages rapidly. Recent breakthroughs in numerical methods make it possible to apply simulations to industrial design concepts. The employed approach is based on the Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Technical Paper

A holistic Development Method Based on AVL FRISC as Enabler for CO2 Reduction with Focus on Low Viscosity Oils

2020-04-14
2020-01-1060
To achieve future fleet CO2 emission targets, all powertrain types, including those with internal combustion engines, need to achieve higher efficiency. Next to others the reduction of friction is one contributor to increase powertrain efficiency. The piston bore interface (PBI) accounts for up to 50 % of the total engine friction losses [1]. Optimizations in this area combined with the use of low viscosity oil, which can reduce the friction of further engine sub-systems, will therefore have a high positive impact. To assess the friction of the PBI whilst considering cross effects of other relevant parameters for mechanical function (e.g. blow-by & wear) and emissions (e.g. oil consumption) AVL has established a holistic development method based around the AVL FRISC (FRIction Single Cylinder) engine with a floating liner measurement concept.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Capable and Modular Modeling Concept for Virtual SI Engine Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-0577
Spark Ignited (SI) combustions engines in combination with different degrees of hybridization are expected to play a major role in future vehicle propulsion. Due to the combustion principle and the related thermodynamic efficiency, it is especially challenging to meet future CO2 targets. The layout and optimization of the overall system requires novel methods in the development process which feature a seamless transition between real and virtual prototypes. Herein, engine models need to predict the entire engine operating range in steady-state and transient conditions and must respond to all relevant control inputs. In addition, the model must feature true real-time capability. This work presents a holistic and modular modeling framework, which considers all relevant processes in the complex chain of physical effects in SI combustion.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Brake Disc Temperature Prediction on High Speed Testing Mode and Circuit

2020-04-14
2020-01-0214
A brake is a mechanical device that inhibits the motion by absorbing energy from a moving system. It is used for slowing or stopping a moving vehicle, wheel, axle, or to prevent its motion, most often accomplished by friction energy. Commonly, most brakes use friction between two surfaces pressed together to convert the kinetic energy of the moving object into heat, though other methods of energy conversion may be employed. If braking is repeated or sustained in high load or high-speed conditions, the motion will be unstable and can lead to a loss of stopping power because the disc capability for braking is not enough. These phenomena are generally defined as brake fading. Brake fade is caused by an overheating brake system. This paper describes the thermal modeling and process to predict the disk temperature under a condition which causes the fade characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Modular Gasoline Engine Family for Hybrid Powertrains: Balancing Cost and Efficiency Optimization

2020-04-14
2020-01-0839
The electrification of the powertrain is a prerequisite to meet future fuel consumption limits, while the internal combustion engine (ICE) will remain a key element of most production volume relevant powertrain concepts. High volume applications will be covered by electrified powertrains. The range will include parallel hybrids, 48V- or High voltage Mild- or Full hybrids, up to Serial hybrids. In the first configurations the ICE is the main propulsion, requiring the whole engine speed and load range including the transient operation. At serial hybrid applications the vehicle is generally electrically driven, the ICE provides power to drive the generator, either exclusively or supporting a battery charging concept. As the ICE is not mechanically coupled to the drive train, a reduction of the operating range and thus a partial simplification of the ICE is achievable.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

2020-04-14
2020-01-0145
The automotive domain has seen safety engineering at the forefront of the industry’s priorities for the last decade. Therefore, additional safety engineering efforts, design approaches, and well-established safety processes have been stipulated. Today many connected and automated vehicles are available and connectivity features and information sharing are increasingly used. This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

2019-09-09
2019-24-0196
Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

2019-09-09
2019-24-0082
Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

2019-06-05
2019-01-1451
A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

Dual Mode VCS Variable Compression System - System Integration and Vehicle Requirements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0248
Future legislation scenarios as well as stringent CO2 targets, in particular under real driving conditions, will require the introduction of new and additional powertrain technologies. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). There is clearly a competition of new and different ICE-Technologies [1] including VCR. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The implementation of Miller or Atkinson cycles is an essential criterion for increased geometric Compression Ratio (CR). The DUAL MODE Variable Compression System (VCS)TM enables a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus of the compression ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0988
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Model Based Assessment of Real-Driving Emissions - A Variation Study on Design and Operation Parameter

2019-01-09
2019-26-0241
In 2017 the European authorities put into effect the first part of a new certification test procedure for Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Similar tests are planned in other regions of the world, such as the upcoming China 6a/6b standards, further tightening emission limits, and also the introduction of RDE tests. Both restrictions pose challenging engineering tasks for upcoming vehicles. RDE certification tests feature significantly more demanding engine operating conditions and thus, emit more pollutants by orders of magnitude compared to known cycles like NEDC. Here, especially the reduction of NOx is a specific technical challenge, as it needs to compromise also with reduction targets on carbon dioxide. The fulfilment of both emission limits requires a widening of the focus from an isolated engine or exhaust aftertreatment view to a system engineering view involving all hardware and software domains of the vehicle.
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