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Technical Paper

Automated Test Case Generation and Virtual Assessment Framework for UN Regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems

Validation of highly automated or autonomous vehicles is nowadays still a major challenge for the automotive industry. Furthermore, the homologation of ADAS/AD vehicles according to global regulations is getting more essential for their safe development and deployment around the world. In order to assure that the autonomous driving function is able to cope with the huge number of possible situations during operation, comprehensive testing of the functions is required. However, conventional testing approaches such as driving distance-based validation approach in the real world, can be time- and cost-consuming. Therefore, a scenario-based virtual validation and testing method is considered to be a proper solution. In this paper, we propose a virtual assessment framework using a fully automated test case generation method. This framework is embedded into the continuous development and validation process.
Technical Paper

Future Diesel-Powertrain in LCV and SUV-Electrified, Modular Platform with Focus on Emission, Efficiency and Cost

Considering worldwide future emission and CO2-legislation for the Light Commercial Vehicle segment, a wide range of powertrain variants is expected. Dependent on the application use cases all powertrain combinations, from pure Diesel engine propulsion via various levels of hybridization, to pure battery electric vehicles will be in the market. Under this aspect as well as facing differing legal and market requirements, a modular approach is presented for the LCV and SUV Segment, which can be adapted flexibly to meet the different requirements. A displacement range of 2.0L to 2.3L, representing the current baseline in Europe is taken as basis. To best fulfill the commercial boundaries, tailored technology packages, based on a common global engine platform are defined and compared. These packages include engine related technical features for emission- and fuel consumption improvement, as well as electrification measures, in particular 48V-MHEV variants.
Technical Paper

E-Mobility-Opportunities and Challenges of Integrated Corner Solutions

E-mobility is a game changer for the automotive domain. It promises significant reduction in terms of complexity and in terms of local emissions. With falling prices and recent technological advances, the second generation of electric vehicles (EVs) that is now in production makes electromobility an affordable and viable option for more and more transport mission (people, freight). Current e-vehicle platforms still present architectural similarities with respect to combustion engine vehicle (e.g., centralized motor). Target of the European project EVC1000 is to introduce corner solutions with in-wheel motors supported by electrified chassis components (brake-by-wire, active suspension) and advanced control strategies for full potential exploitation. Especially, it is expected that this solution will provide more architectural freedom toward “design-for-purpose” vehicles built for dedicated usage models, further providing higher performances.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Technical Paper

An Integrated View on Automotive SPICE, Functional Safety and Cyber-Security

The automotive domain has seen safety engineering at the forefront of the industry’s priorities for the last decade. Therefore, additional safety engineering efforts, design approaches, and well-established safety processes have been stipulated. Today many connected and automated vehicles are available and connectivity features and information sharing are increasingly used. This increases the attractiveness of an attack on vehicles and thus introduces new risks for vehicle cybersecurity. Thus, just as safety became a critical part of the development in the late 20th century, the automotive domain must now consider cybersecurity as an integral part of the development of modern vehicles. Aware of this fact, the automotive industry has, therefore, recently taken multiple efforts in designing and producing safe and secure connected and automated vehicles.
Technical Paper

FCEV Performance Assessment - Electrochemical Fuel Cell and Battery Modelling on Vehicle Level

Fuel cell electric vehicles are a promising technology to create CO2- neutral mobility. Model-based development approaches are key to reduce costs and to raise efficiencies. A model on vehicle system level is discussed that balances the need of physical depth and computational performance. The vehicle model comprises the domains of mechanics, electrics, thermodynamics, cooling and controls. Detailed models of the fuel cell and battery are presented as a part of the system model. The models apply electrochemical approaches and spatial resolutions up to 3D. The models of both components are validated via 3D reference simulations showing a seamless parameter transfer between system level and CFD-based simulations. The validity of the vehicle model, including the electrochemical components, is demonstrated by simulating the Toyota Mirai vehicle. Simulation results of an NEDC are compared to measurements.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Model Based Assessment of Real-Driving Emissions - A Variation Study on Design and Operation Parameter

In 2017 the European authorities put into effect the first part of a new certification test procedure for Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Similar tests are planned in other regions of the world, such as the upcoming China 6a/6b standards, further tightening emission limits, and also the introduction of RDE tests. Both restrictions pose challenging engineering tasks for upcoming vehicles. RDE certification tests feature significantly more demanding engine operating conditions and thus, emit more pollutants by orders of magnitude compared to known cycles like NEDC. Here, especially the reduction of NOx is a specific technical challenge, as it needs to compromise also with reduction targets on carbon dioxide. The fulfilment of both emission limits requires a widening of the focus from an isolated engine or exhaust aftertreatment view to a system engineering view involving all hardware and software domains of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Real-World Fuel Consumption Measurement as the Base for the Compliance to Future CO2 Regulations

The gap between the officially reported CO2 values and the actual performance of the vehicle on the road is continuously increasing. Numerous studies are showing differences between the official values and the real-world measurements of more than 40% in average, with further increases year by year. The fuel consumption of passenger cars are determined as part of the vehicle certification according to Euro 6 via carbon mass balance using exhaust gas measurement. By introducing the new world harmonized driving cycle (WLTC) in September 2017, which is addressing a more realistic speed profile or traffic conditions, the gap between the certification and road test is expected to be reduced in half. Additionally the EU Commission plans to monitor vehicles more closely. From 2020, devices for recording fuel and energy consumption will become mandatory in all passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, reflecting the average real world CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Technical Paper

PMSM Noise - Simulation Measurement Comparison

Growing development of hybrid and fully electrical drives increases demand for accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristic of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emission from PMSM electric machine as a one of the most important noise sources in electric vehicles. Structural and air borne noise is measured on e-machine test rig and used for calibration and validation of the numerical model. The electro-magnetic field in PMSM is simulated using finite volume method. Electro-magnetic forces are applied as excitation to the 3D FE model of e-machine, mounded on test frame. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis including identification of orthotropic characteristic of stator laminated core, assembled together with coil and end winding. Structural vibrations are calculated by modal frequency response analysis and applied as excitation in air borne noise simulation.
Technical Paper

NVH Aspects of Electric Drives-Integration of Electric Machine, Gearbox and Inverter

The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years and, despite that electric vehicles are quiet, NVH remains a major requirement of vehicle development. The typical NVH issues are gear whine from the gearbox, noise from the E-machine or electromagnetic whine, as well as the noise from the inverter, and noise from inverter harmonics effect on E-machine. Simulation methodologies and CAE workflows are being enhanced to contribute to electric drive systems development. Front loading in the concept and layout design phase are necessary to avoid significant NVH issues at the end of development. The authors previously presented a workflow for combining the electric and mechanical noise for electric drives for the concept and layout design phases. This paper shows an application of the formerly presented workflow for NVH simulation and validation of a system with an Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) E-machine.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulation of an ‘On-Road’ Overtaking Maneuver Involving Model Vehicles

Aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model taking over a truck model are studied computationally by applying the scale-resolving PANS (Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes) approach. Both vehicles represent down-scaled (1:2.5), geometrically-similar models of realistic vehicle configurations for which on-road measurements have been performed by Schrefl (2008). The operating conditions of the modelled ‘on-road’ overtaking maneuver are determined by applying the dynamic similarity concept in terms of Reynolds number consistency. The simulated vehicle configuration constitutes of a non-moving truck model and a car model moving against the air flow, the velocity of which corresponds to the car velocity.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Supporting Passive Filter Regeneration- A Modeling Contribution on Coated Filters

Wall flow particulate filters have been used as a standard exhaust aftertreatment device for many years. The interaction of particulate matter (PM) regeneration and catalytically supported reactions strongly depends on the given operating conditions. Temperature, species concentration and mass flow cause a change from advective to diffusive-controlled flow conditions and influence the rate controlling dominance of individual reactions. A transient 1D+1D model is presented considering advective and diffusive transport phenomena. The reaction scheme focuses on passive PM conversion and catalytic oxidation of NO. The model is validated with analytical references. The impact of back-diffusion is explored simulating pure advective and combined advective diffusive species transport. Rate approaches from literature are applied to investigate PM conversion at various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.