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Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

2022-03-29
2022-01-0597
Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Investigation and Optimization of Engine Starts in a HEV Powertrain

2022-03-29
2022-01-0484
The shift toward electrification and limitations in battery electric vehicle technology have led to high demand for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) that utilize a battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE) for propulsion. Although HEVs enable lower fuel consumption and emissions compared to conventional vehicles, they still require combustion of fuels for ICE operation. Thus, emissions from hybrid vehicles are still a major concern. Engine starts are a major source of emissions during any driving event, especially before the three-way catalyst (TWC) reaches its light-off temperature. Since the engine is subjected to multiple starts during most driving events, it is important to mitigate and better understand the impact of these emissions. In this study, experiments were conducted to analyze engine starts in a hybrid powertrain on different experimental setup.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of a 48V-Hybrid-Powertrain for L-Category Vehicles with Longitudinal Dynamic Simulation and Design of Experiments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0672
The demand for high efficiency powertrains in automotive engineering is further increasing, with hybrid powertrains being a feasible option to cope with new legislations. So far hybridization has only played a minor role for L-category vehicles. Focusing on an exemplary high-power L-category on-road vehicle, this research aims to show a new development approach, which combines longitudinal dynamic simulation (LDS) with “Design of Experiments” (DoE) in course of hybrid electric powertrain development. Furthermore, addressing the technological aspect, this paper points out how such a vehicle can benefit from 48V-hybridization of its already existing internal combustion powertrain. A fully parametric LDS model is built in Matlab/Simulink, with exchangeable powertrain components and an adaptable hybrid operation strategy. Beforehand, characterizing decisions as to focus on 48V and on parallel hybrid architecture are made.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

2021-09-22
2021-26-0449
Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Technical Paper

Calibrating BEV and HEV Powertrains for Dynamic Performance Targets

2021-09-05
2021-24-0102
Calibrating a vehicle’s powertrain for dynamic operation needs to focus on efforts to mitigate the risks of thermal overload which may arise in the stator or rotor components of an e-motor. Risks also may arise for expected NVH or durability targets, with torque and torque “oscillations” acting as primary sources for the vehicles’ NVH behavior. Both topics, temperature measurement of stator and rotor as well as dynamic torque measurements of the powertrain’s drive shaft are addressed with examples demonstrating the sensors applications in normal test bed and vehicle configurations.
Technical Paper

Measurement Approaches for Variable Compression Ratio Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0649
In the ongoing competition of powertrain concepts the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) will also have to demonstrate its potential for increased efficiency [1]. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Systems for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) can make an important contribution to meeting stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. Using such technology a CO2 reduction of between 5% and 9% in the World Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) are achievable, depending on vehicle class, load profile and power rating [2]. This paper provides a detailed description of the measurement approaches that are used during development of the AVL Dual Mode VCSTM and other VCR systems in fired operation. Results obtained from these measurements are typically used to calibrate or verify simulation models, which themselves are an integral part of the development of these systems [3].
Technical Paper

Future Diesel-Powertrain in LCV and SUV-Electrified, Modular Platform with Focus on Emission, Efficiency and Cost

2021-04-06
2021-01-0635
Considering worldwide future emission and CO2-legislation for the Light Commercial Vehicle segment, a wide range of powertrain variants is expected. Dependent on the application use cases all powertrain combinations, from pure Diesel engine propulsion via various levels of hybridization, to pure battery electric vehicles will be in the market. Under this aspect as well as facing differing legal and market requirements, a modular approach is presented for the LCV and SUV Segment, which can be adapted flexibly to meet the different requirements. A displacement range of 2.0L to 2.3L, representing the current baseline in Europe is taken as basis. To best fulfill the commercial boundaries, tailored technology packages, based on a common global engine platform are defined and compared. These packages include engine related technical features for emission- and fuel consumption improvement, as well as electrification measures, in particular 48V-MHEV variants.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

2020-09-30
2020-01-1511
Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

Advanced CAE Methods for NVH Development of High-Speed Electric Axle

2020-09-30
2020-01-1501
The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years. With intensified development more and more attention is paid to the noise and vibration in such vehicles especially from the EDU (Electric Drive Unit). In this paper the main NVH simulation process of a high-speed E-axle up to 30,000 rpm for premium class vehicle application is presented. The high speed, high-power density and lightweight design introduces new challenges. Benchmarking of different EDUs and vehicles leads to targets which can be used at the early stage of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows the CAE methodology which can be used to verify the design and guarantee the target achievement. Using CAE both source and structure can be optimized to improve the NVH behavior.
Technical Paper

Root Cause Analysis and Structural Optimization of E-Drive Transmission

2020-09-30
2020-01-1578
This paper describes the simulation tool chain serving to design and optimize the transmission of an electric axle drive from concept to final design with respect to NVH. A two-stage transmission of an eAxle is designed from scratch by the initial layout of gears and shafts, including the optimization of gear micro geometry. After the shaft system and bearings are defined, the concept design of the transmission housing is evaluated with the help of a basic topology optimization regarding stiffness and certain eigenfrequencies. In the next step a fully flexible multi-body dynamic (MBD) and acoustic analysis of the transmission is performed using internally calculated excitations due to gear contact and bearing interaction with shaft and gear dynamics for the entire speed and load range. Critical operating conditions in terms of shaft dynamics, structure borne noise and noise radiation are evaluated and selected as target for optimization in the following steps.
Technical Paper

A Modular Gasoline Engine Family for Hybrid Powertrains: Balancing Cost and Efficiency Optimization

2020-04-14
2020-01-0838
The electrification of the powertrain is a prerequisite to meet future fuel consumption limits, while the internal combustion engine (ICE) will remain a key element of most production volume relevant powertrain concepts. High volume applications will be covered by electrified powertrains. The range will include parallel hybrids, 48V- or High voltage Mild- or Full hybrids, up to Serial hybrids. In the first configurations the ICE is the main propulsion, requiring the whole engine speed and load range including the transient operation. At serial hybrid applications the vehicle is generally electrically driven, the ICE provides power to drive the generator, either exclusively or supporting a battery charging concept. As the ICE is not mechanically coupled to the drive train, a reduction of the operating range and thus a partial simplification of the ICE is achievable.
Technical Paper

The Prospect and Benefits of Using the Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes Method for Engine Flows

2020-04-14
2020-01-1107
This paper presents calculations of engine flows by using the Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes (PANS) method (Girimaji [1]; [2]). The PANS is a scale-resolving turbulence computational approach designed to resolve large scale fluctuations and model the remainder with appropriate closures. Depending upon the prescribed cut-off length (filter width) the method adjusts seamlessly from the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to the Direct Numerical Solution (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. The PANS method was successfully used for many applications but mainly on static geometries, e.g. Basara et al. [3]; [4]. This is due to the calculation of the cut-off control parameter which requires that the resolved kinetic energy is known and this is usually obtained by suitably averaging of the resolved field. Such averaging process is expensive and impractical for engines as it would require averaging per cycles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Flow Paths due to Leakages of Flammable Liquids by the SPH Method: Application to Real Engines

2020-04-14
2020-01-1114
One of the most important safety issues for automotive engineering is to avoid any fire due to the ignition of flammable liquids, which may result from leaks. Fire risk is a combination of hot temperature, fast vaporisation and accumulation of vapor in a cavity. In IC engines, potentially flammable liquids are fuel and oil. To guarantee safety, flammable liquids must not come into contact with hot parts of the engine. Consequently, shields are designed to guide the flow path of possible leakages and to take any flammable liquid out of the hot areas. Simulation is a great help to optimize the shape of the shield by investigating a large number of possible leakages rapidly. Recent breakthroughs in numerical methods make it possible to apply simulations to industrial design concepts. The employed approach is based on the Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.
Technical Paper

A holistic Development Method Based on AVL FRISC as Enabler for CO2 Reduction with Focus on Low Viscosity Oils

2020-04-14
2020-01-1060
To achieve future fleet CO2 emission targets, all powertrain types, including those with internal combustion engines, need to achieve higher efficiency. Next to others the reduction of friction is one contributor to increase powertrain efficiency. The piston bore interface (PBI) accounts for up to 50 % of the total engine friction losses [1]. Optimizations in this area combined with the use of low viscosity oil, which can reduce the friction of further engine sub-systems, will therefore have a high positive impact. To assess the friction of the PBI whilst considering cross effects of other relevant parameters for mechanical function (e.g. blow-by & wear) and emissions (e.g. oil consumption) AVL has established a holistic development method based around the AVL FRISC (FRIction Single Cylinder) engine with a floating liner measurement concept.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Capable and Modular Modeling Concept for Virtual SI Engine Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-0577
Spark Ignited (SI) combustions engines in combination with different degrees of hybridization are expected to play a major role in future vehicle propulsion. Due to the combustion principle and the related thermodynamic efficiency, it is especially challenging to meet future CO2 targets. The layout and optimization of the overall system requires novel methods in the development process which feature a seamless transition between real and virtual prototypes. Herein, engine models need to predict the entire engine operating range in steady-state and transient conditions and must respond to all relevant control inputs. In addition, the model must feature true real-time capability. This work presents a holistic and modular modeling framework, which considers all relevant processes in the complex chain of physical effects in SI combustion.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Calibration Techniques

2019-09-09
2019-24-0196
Meeting the particle number (PN) emissions limits in vehicle test sequences needs specific attention on each power variation event occurring in the internal combustion engine (ICE). ICE power variations arise from engine start onwards along the entire test drive. In hybrid systems, there is one further source for transient ICE response: each power shift between E-motor and ICE introduces gas flow variations with subsequent temperature response in the ICE and in the engine aftertreatment system (EAS). This bears consequences for engine out emissions as well as for the EAS efficiency and even for the durability of a catalytic converter. As system calibration engineers must decide on numerous actuator parameters, their decisions, finally, are crucial for meeting legislative limits under the boundary conditions given by the hybrid vehicle’s drive environment.
Technical Paper

Dual Mode VCS Variable Compression System - System Integration and Vehicle Requirements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0248
Future legislation scenarios as well as stringent CO2 targets, in particular under real driving conditions, will require the introduction of new and additional powertrain technologies. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). There is clearly a competition of new and different ICE-Technologies [1] including VCR. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The implementation of Miller or Atkinson cycles is an essential criterion for increased geometric Compression Ratio (CR). The DUAL MODE Variable Compression System (VCS)TM enables a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus of the compression ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Ash Transport and Deposition, Cake Formation and Segregation-A Modeling Study on the Impact of Ash on Particulate Filter Performance

2019-04-02
2019-01-0987
Non-combustible particles, commonly summarized as ash, influence the lifetime performance of wall flow filters. This study aims to investigate this influence by means of simulation. An existing transient 1D+1D wall flow filter model is extended by dedicated transport balances for soot and ash (1), by a discrete cake model describing changing soot and ash compositions over the cake height (2), by a phenomenological cake filtration model (3), by dedicated cake property models (4) and by a phenomenological model capturing the radial mobility of solids within the cake (5). Results of three different types of simulations are shown. First, the various sub-models are assessed in isolated simulation configurations. The combination of these shall serve as theoretical model validation. Second, isolated loading and passive regeneration simulations are performed.
Technical Paper

Model Based Assessment of Real-Driving Emissions - A Variation Study on Design and Operation Parameter

2019-01-09
2019-26-0241
In 2017 the European authorities put into effect the first part of a new certification test procedure for Real Driving Emissions (RDE). Similar tests are planned in other regions of the world, such as the upcoming China 6a/6b standards, further tightening emission limits, and also the introduction of RDE tests. Both restrictions pose challenging engineering tasks for upcoming vehicles. RDE certification tests feature significantly more demanding engine operating conditions and thus, emit more pollutants by orders of magnitude compared to known cycles like NEDC. Here, especially the reduction of NOx is a specific technical challenge, as it needs to compromise also with reduction targets on carbon dioxide. The fulfilment of both emission limits requires a widening of the focus from an isolated engine or exhaust aftertreatment view to a system engineering view involving all hardware and software domains of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

2019-01-09
2019-26-0348
Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
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