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Technical Paper

Power Electronic Noise-Simulation Measurement Comparison

2019-06-05
2019-01-1451
A growing development of hybrid or fully electrical drives increases the demand for an accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristics of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emissions from power electronics, as one of the new important noise sources in electric vehicles. The noise emitted from the printed circuit board (PCB) equipped with multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) is measured and used for the calibration and validation of numerical model. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis, with special attention to the orthotropic characteristic of the PCB glass-reinforced epoxy laminate sheet (FR-4). Electroacoustic excitation is pre-calculated using an extension of schematic-based EMC simulation and applied to the structural model. Structural vibrations are calculated with a commercial FEM solver with the modal frequency response analysis.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

2019-01-09
2019-26-0348
Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Journal Article

Real-World Fuel Consumption Measurement as the Base for the Compliance to Future CO2 Regulations

2019-01-09
2019-26-0357
The gap between the officially reported CO2 values and the actual performance of the vehicle on the road is continuously increasing. Numerous studies are showing differences between the official values and the real-world measurements of more than 40% in average, with further increases year by year. The fuel consumption of passenger cars are determined as part of the vehicle certification according to Euro 6 via carbon mass balance using exhaust gas measurement. By introducing the new world harmonized driving cycle (WLTC) in September 2017, which is addressing a more realistic speed profile or traffic conditions, the gap between the certification and road test is expected to be reduced in half. Additionally the EU Commission plans to monitor vehicles more closely. From 2020, devices for recording fuel and energy consumption will become mandatory in all passenger cars and light commercial vehicles, reflecting the average real world CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Technical Paper

PMSM Noise - Simulation Measurement Comparison

2018-06-13
2018-01-1552
Growing development of hybrid and fully electrical drives increases demand for accurate prediction of noise and vibration characteristic of electric and electronic components. This paper describes the numerical and experimental investigation of noise emission from PMSM electric machine as a one of the most important noise sources in electric vehicles. Structural and air borne noise is measured on e-machine test rig and used for calibration and validation of the numerical model. The electro-magnetic field in PMSM is simulated using finite volume method. Electro-magnetic forces are applied as excitation to the 3D FE model of e-machine, mounded on test frame. Material properties are tuned using results from experimental modal analysis including identification of orthotropic characteristic of stator laminated core, assembled together with coil and end winding. Structural vibrations are calculated by modal frequency response analysis and applied as excitation in air borne noise simulation.
Technical Paper

NVH Aspects of Electric Drives-Integration of Electric Machine, Gearbox and Inverter

2018-06-13
2018-01-1556
The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years and, despite that electric vehicles are quiet, NVH remains a major requirement of vehicle development. The typical NVH issues are gear whine from the gearbox, noise from the E-machine or electromagnetic whine, as well as the noise from the inverter, and noise from inverter harmonics effect on E-machine. Simulation methodologies and CAE workflows are being enhanced to contribute to electric drive systems development. Front loading in the concept and layout design phase are necessary to avoid significant NVH issues at the end of development. The authors previously presented a workflow for combining the electric and mechanical noise for electric drives for the concept and layout design phases. This paper shows an application of the formerly presented workflow for NVH simulation and validation of a system with an Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) E-machine.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulation of an ‘On-Road’ Overtaking Maneuver Involving Model Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0706
Aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model taking over a truck model are studied computationally by applying the scale-resolving PANS (Partially-averaged Navier-Stokes) approach. Both vehicles represent down-scaled (1:2.5), geometrically-similar models of realistic vehicle configurations for which on-road measurements have been performed by Schrefl (2008). The operating conditions of the modelled ‘on-road’ overtaking maneuver are determined by applying the dynamic similarity concept in terms of Reynolds number consistency. The simulated vehicle configuration constitutes of a non-moving truck model and a car model moving against the air flow, the velocity of which corresponds to the car velocity.
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2424
In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Noise Investigation of a Bus Rear Axle - Todays Possibilities and Outlook

2017-06-05
2017-01-1820
This paper presents a simulation environment and methodology for noise and vibration analyses of a driven rear axle in a bus application, with particular focus on medium to high frequency range (400 Hz to 3 kHz). The workflow demonstrates structure borne noise and sound radiation analyses. The fully flexible Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) model - serving to cover the actual mechanical excitation mechanisms and the structural domain - includes geometrical contacts of hypoid gear in the central gear and planetary gear integrated at hubs, considering non-linear meshing stiffness. Contribution of aforementioned gear stages, as well as the propeller shaft universal joint at the pinion axle, on overall axle noise levels is investigated by means of sensitivity analysis. Based on the surface velocities computed at the vibrating axle-housing structure the Wave Based Technique (WBT) is employed to solve the airborne noise problem and predict the radiated sound.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Vehicle’s NVH Challenges and Influences on the NVH Development

2016-06-15
2016-01-1837
Due to more stringent emission regulation, especially plug-in hybrid vehicles have an increased attractiveness for OEMs to reduce OEM’s CO2 fleet emission. Generally, hybrid vehicles have a much higher complexity than conventional vehicles. This gives an additional degree of freedom for the development but also increases the number of potential NVH topics dramatically. Therefore, the role of frontloading and early prototype testing is getting even higher importance than in standard developments. Current hybrid vehicles on the market are mainly ICE vehicles with electric boosting or starting functionality only. This however will not be sufficient to fulfill the OEM’s CO2 fleet emission requirements. Future hybrid vehicles will have much higher electrical capabilities and drive much more in pure electric modes. Therefore, the more frequent change between the different driving modes and the related mode transitions will lead to a more complex interior NVH situation.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Approach for Vehicle Life-Time Thermal Analysis Applied to a HEV Battery System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0201
In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Global vehicle simulation is already a well-established tool to support the vehicle development process. In contrast to conventional vehicles, electrified powertrains offer an additional challenge to the thermal conditioning: the durability of E-components is not only influenced by temperature peaks but also by the duration and amplitude of temperature swings as well as temperature gradients within the components during their lifetime. Keeping all components always at the preferred lowest temperature level to avoid ageing under any conditions (driving, parking, etc.) will result in very high energy consumption which is in contradiction to the efficiency targets.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender: Development for Lowest Vibrations and Compact Design Based on Existing Production Parts

2015-11-17
2015-32-0740
The automotive trend towards increased levels of electrification is showing a clear direction for hybrid technologies. Nowadays Mild- and plug-in-hybrids open a very wide area of future developments whereas battery electric vehicles (BEV) are still evident but still perceived as niche products with limited production volumes. Nevertheless, major OEMs are working on these kinds of vehicles and have also brought such EV concepts into series production. All of these designs show a clear trend that, beside the topic of electric traction motor and energy storage systems, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is also coming into focus again. In many of these vehicles the range extender (RE) unit is foreseen as an emergency unit to recharge the batteries if the state of charge (SOC) is too low. One of the major advantages of a BEV over other designs is the very good acoustic behavior, so the NVH performance becomes the most challenging topic for RE development.
Technical Paper

Generic software architecture for cost efficient powertrain electrification

2015-04-14
2015-01-1630
Hybrid-electric vehicles provide additional functionality compared to conventional vehicles. So-called ‘hybrid’ software functions are required to coordinate the conventional powertrain control and these additional control functions. A key factor to reduce the fuel consumption lies in optimal control of the entire interconnected powertrain. This paper aims to provide a framework for efficient interface definition, connection and coordination of control units for hybrid electric vehicles. Such a framework supports an efficient development of control unit architectures and the distribution of software functions. The generic approach necessitates modular software functions. It defines the distribution of these functions in control units optimized with respect to reuse, interfaces and compatibility with different powertrain topologies and electrification variants, especially also considering compatibility with a conventional powertrain and its electric hybridization.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities in Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2014-10-13
2014-01-2889
The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term “hybrid vehicle” can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a large amount of vehicles that call themselves “hybrid”. This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
Technical Paper

Coupling Node Reduction of a Synchronous Machine Using Multipoint-Constraints

2014-06-30
2014-01-2067
The noise vibration and harshness (NVH) simulation of electric machines becomes increasingly important due to the use of electric machines in vehicles. This paper describes a method to reduce the calculation time and required memory of the finite element NVH simulation of electrical machines. The stator of a synchronous electrical machine is modeled as a two-dimensional problem to reduce investigation effort. The electromagnetic forces acting on the stator are determined by FE-simulation in advance. Since these forces need to be transferred from the electromagnetic model to the structural model, a coupling algorithm is necessary. In order to reduce the number of nodes, which are involved in the coupling between the electromagnetic and structural model, multipoint constraints (MPC) are used to connect several coupling nodes to one new coupling node. For the definition of the new coupling nodes, the acting load is analyzed with a 2D-FFT.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

2014-06-30
2014-01-2093
Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the System Level Electric Drive using Efficiency Maps Obtained by Simulation Methods

2014-04-01
2014-01-1875
This work presents a physical model that calculates the efficiency maps of the inverter-fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive. The corresponding electrical machine and its controller are implemented based on the two-phase (d-q) equivalent circuits that take into account the copper loss as well as the iron loss of the PMSM. A control strategy that optimizes the machine efficiency is applied in the controller to maximize the possible output torque. In addition, the model applies an analytical method to predict the losses of the voltage source inverter. Consequently, the efficiency maps within the entire operating region of the PMSM drive can be derived from the simulation results, and they are used to represent electric drives in the system simulation model of electric vehicles (EVs).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Thermal Management Simulation Method Integrated in the Development Process from Scratch to Prototype

2014-04-01
2014-01-0668
In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Furthermore the increasing number of vehicle configurations leads to a high variability and degrees of freedom in possible system designs and the control thereof, which can only be handled by a comprehensive tool chain of vehicle system simulation and a generic control system architecture. The required model must comprise all relevant systems of the vehicle (control functionality, cooling system, lubrication system, engine, drive train, HV components etc.). For proper prediction with respect to energy consumption all interactions and interdependencies of those systems have to be taken into consideration, i.e. all energy fluxes (mechanical, hydraulically, electrical, thermal) have to be exchanged among the system boundaries accordingly.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities of Variant Calibration of Hybrid Vehicles

2013-03-25
2013-01-0128
The automotive industry is racing to introduce some degree of hybridization into their product ranges. Since the term "hybrid vehicle" can cover a wide range of differing technologies and drivetrain topologies, this has led to a plethora of vehicles that call them "hybrid." This poses an interesting challenge for marketers to differentiate these vehicles from the incumbents. However, it is not just the marketers who are faced with challenges, the developers of such hybrid drivetrains are faced with a rise in technical complexity due to the wide range of operating modes hybridization introduces. As propulsive torque is being generated in more than one place in a hybrid vehicle, the transitions from conventional drive to electrically supported drive bring with them complex aspects of multi-dimensional system control. The challenge is to be able to implement hybrid technology in an existing drivetrain, while adapting the existing components as required.
Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
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