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Technical Paper

Validation of Powertrain Systems based on Usage Space Analysis considering Virtual Road Load Profiles

2024-04-09
2024-01-2424
Validation of powertrain systems are nowadays performed with specific durability relevant load cycles which represents the lifetime requirement of individual powertrain components. This covers essential validation topics as mechanical components within powertrain systems (e.g., gears, bearings, and shafts, etc.) as well as thermal load driven failure mechanisms within e-axles considering e-motors and inverters. These durability relevant load cycles for powertrain components are usually based on representative usage spaces. Such application specific load cycles are generated from representative driving cycles covering the driving behaviour of end customers. The definition of durability relevant testing cycles for reliable testing of the vehicle must be based on the actual usage of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Impact of Injection Valve Condition on Data-driven Prediction of Key Combustion Parameters Based on an Intelligent Diesel Fuel Injector for Large Engine Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2836
The advent of digitalization opens up new avenues for advances in large internal combustion engine technology. Key engine components are becoming "intelligent" through advanced instrumentation and data analytics. By generating value-added data, they provide deeper insight into processes related to the components. In addition, these data form the basis for novel condition monitoring, predictive maintenance and controls approaches. Changes to the intelligent component’s operational characteristics due to wear or faults pose a particular challenge for developers of such approaches for later series application. A previous study has already demonstrated that an intelligent common rail diesel fuel injection valve for large engine applications in combination with machine learning allows reliable prediction of key combustion parameters such as maximum cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and indicated mean effective pressure.
Technical Paper

Viability of Alternative Fuels to Decarbonize the World’s Largest Agricultural Tractor Market

2024-01-16
2024-26-0065
India is the market with the highest sales of agricultural tractors and the market with the highest number of agricultural tractor park, as well. Even though taking into account the lower average power of Indian agricultural tractors compared to regions with considerably larger field sizes, their cumulated diesel fuel consumption reaches a significant size. The possible use of alternative powertrains like battery-electric, especially considering the lower power of the Indian tractor market, seems feasible, but might be struggling with challenges in terms of charging infrastructure and the possibly resulting lower productivity due to required charging times. Therefore AVL proposes to investigate the use of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, a topic which is also being discussed by other global tractor OEMs. In that context the focus is typically on higher tractor powers due to current storage limitations of battery-electric systems and other alternatives.
Technical Paper

Industrialization of the Commercial Hydrogen Engine till 2025

2024-01-16
2024-26-0167
India striving for carbon neutrality influences futures powertrain architecture of commercial vehicles. The use of CO2-free drives as battery electric have been demonstrated for various applications. The productivity still is a challenge due to missing high power charging infrastructure or limited range. This draws the attention to the use of sustainable fuels due to lower refueling times. The hydrogen engine got highest attention in the last couple of years. For markets as the EU the driver for hydrogen is the CO2 emission reduction, whereas for markets as India hydrogen offers the additional opportunity for more independence from fossil imports. Different OEMs all over the world have converted diesel engines to hydrogen operation with strong focus on performance and emission demonstration, so far with limited technology readiness of different key components.
Technical Paper

Brake Emission Testing Process – Assuring Repeatability and Reproducibility of Emission Measurement Results

2023-11-05
2023-01-1876
Non-exhaust emissions are clearly one of the focal points for the upcoming Euro 7 legislation. The new United Nations Global Technical Regulation (UN GTR) defining the framework for brake emission measurements is about to be officially published. The first amendment to this text is already on the way through the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) hierarchy for decision making. In real life, the final emission factor as the ultimate result of a test is influenced by inaccuracies of numerous parts of the measurement system as well as additional contributing factors like the performance of the particulate filter handling process, which might not be primarily related to equipment specifications.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network-Based Emission Control for Future ICE Concepts

2023-10-31
2023-01-1605
The internal combustion engine contains several actuators to control engine performance and emissions. These are controlled within the engine ECU and follow a specific operating strategy to achieve objectives such as NOx reduction and fuel economy. However, these two goals are conflicting and a compromise is required. The operating state depends on system constraints such as engine speed, load, temperature levels, and aftertreatment system efficiency. This results in constantly changing target values to stay within the defined limits, especially the legal emission limits. The conventional approach is to use multiple operating modes. Each mode represents a specific compromise and is activated accordingly. Multiple modes are required to meet emissions regulations under all required conditions, which increases the calibration effort. This new control approach uses an artificial neural network to replace the conventional multiple mode approach.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

2023-08-28
2023-24-0077
Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for Optimizing Inverter Performance in Electric Vehicles

2023-08-28
2023-24-0178
In recent years, the use of high-power inverters has become increasingly prevalent in vehicles applications. With the increasing number of electric vehicle models comes the need for efficient and reliable testing methods to ensure the proper functioning of these inverters. One such method is the use of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) environments, where the inverter is connected to a simulated environment to test its performance under various operating conditions. HiL testing allows for faster and more cost-effective testing than traditional methods and provides a safe environment to evaluate the inverter's response to different scenarios. Further, in such an environment, it is possible to specifically stimulate those system states in which conflicts between the lines arise regarding the ideal system parametrization. By combining HiL testing with design-of-experiments and modelling methods, the propulsion system can hence be optimized in a holistic manner.
Technical Paper

Specialised Gear Rig for the Assessment of Loaded Transmission Error, Line of Action and Summarized Mesh Point

2023-04-11
2023-01-0463
Within gear pair development, the simulation of loaded transmission error, line of action and summarized mesh point are crucial information in design optimization as well as reliability, NVH and efficiency prediction. These properties and variables are difficult to evaluate and are usually only assessed through proxy-variables such as unloaded transmission error or contact pattern assessment. Alternatively, large design loops can be generated when prototypes are produced to directly assess the results of reliability, NVH and efficiency and simulation models updated to the results, but not directly calibrated. This work will showcase an advanced test facility with the unique capabilities to evaluate all gear contact types (including hypoid, beveloid, cylindrical and spiral) under loaded conditions while assessing position and force data that can be used to validate simulation models directly and enhance design development.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Class Based Validation Program for Electrified Powertrain Vibration Testing

2023-04-11
2023-01-0920
Vibration testing is common in automotive industry validation and gains greater significance with increasing numbers of electrical components, which are particularly suspectable to vibration related failures. While the nature and intention of vibration testing is common, many contradicting testing standards claim to be a one-size-fits-all solution, leading to questions of which standard is correct for any specific application. This is compounded by the vast variation in vehicle types and applications (suspension systems, dampers, powertrain mass, tire radius, intended usage, etc.) This paper seeks to offer and demonstrate a method to determine characteristic vibration profiles, based on vehicle classes, and illuminate the process to accelerate these to an appropriate test profile. This can either be used to directly validate a system or to support the selection of the most appropriate vibration profile from options within standards.
Technical Paper

Verification and Validation for Modular Development Platforms

2023-04-11
2023-01-0476
As electrified powertrains trends towards the new norm in development, the need to consider modular development approaches becomes more prevalent. Modular system developments seek to offer an adaptable product range by considering each system component (transmission, e-motor, inverter, battery, etc.) and system element (park-lock, disconnect, differential, etc.) as interchangeable. This can result in a lower cost development process overall to increase the returns for tier1 suppliers by expanding the marketability of the platform. Such an approach has hitherto held relatively low commercial interest as the rate of technological advancement negated the benefits of a modular development due to the lack of long-term competitivity. Previously large technological advances between successive productions and the relatively limited EV market, centred around SUV and small car applications, reduced the value in committing to a platform development.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion Process in the Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine

2023-04-11
2023-01-0206
Fully flexible dual fuel (DF) internal combustion (IC) engines, that can burn diesel and gas simultaneously, have become established among heavy-duty engines as they contribute significantly to lower the environmental impact of the transport sector. In order to gain better understanding of the DF combustion process and establish an effective design methodology for DFIC engines, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools are needed. The DF strategy poses new challenges for numerical modelling of the combustion process since all combustion regimes have to be modelled simultaneously. Furthermore, DF engines exhibit higher cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) compared to the pure diesel engines. This issue can be addressed by employing large eddy simulation coupled with appropriate DF detailed chemistry mechanism. However, such an approach is computationally too expensive for today’s industry-related engine calculations.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid IC Engine – Challenges of Hydrogen and E-Fuel Compatibility within Current Production Boundaries

2023-04-11
2023-01-0397
Increasingly stringent greenhouse gas and emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Beside fully electric powertrains different configurations of hybrid powertrains will have an important role in upcoming and future vehicle generations. As already discussed in previous papers, the requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are different to those in a conventional powertrain solution, heading for brake thermal efficiency targets of 45% and above within the product lifecycle for conventional fuels. Focus on product cost and production and assembly facility investment drives reuse of technology packages within modular powertrain technology platforms, with different combinations of internal combustion engines (ICE), transmissions, and e-drive-layouts. The goal of zero carbon operation requires compatibility of ICE for sustainable fuels.
Technical Paper

Wet Clutch Drag Loss Simulation for Different Clutch Patterns

2022-08-30
2022-01-1118
Wet clutches drag loss simulation is essentially linked to the clutch friction surface patterns in addition to the main geometry and conditions of the interface (relative speed, separation, inner and outer radius, viscosity and boundary pressures). The clutch patterns promote cooling flow and micro-hydrodynamic effects to aid clutch separation but greatly complicate the simulation of drag loss during separation. These drag losses are important in understanding the system losses as well as finding the most effective clutch cooling strategy. Typical clutch models either only consider simple patterns, such as radial grooves, or require significant simulation efforts to evaluate. Additionally, many simple models require calibration to measurement of the actual clutch they try to model before they provide a useful model.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Testing Methodology for Vehicle Class and Usage Based Validation

2022-08-30
2022-01-1101
System lubrication in automotive powertrains is a growing topic for development engineers. Hybrid and pure combustion system complexity increases in search of improved efficiency and better control strategy, increasing the number of components with lubrication demand and the interplay between them, while fully electric systems drive for higher input speeds to increase e-motor efficiency, increasing bearing and gear feed rate demands. Added to this, many e-axle and hybrid systems are in development with a shared medium and circuit for e-motor cooling and transmission lubrication. Through all this, the lubricant forms a common thread and is a fundamental component in the system, but no standardized tests can provide a suitable methodology to investigate the adequate lubrication of components at powertrain level, to support the final planned vehicle usage.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation of High-Speed EV Transmission Bearings for Minimum Lubricant Volume

2022-08-30
2022-01-1120
Minimizing the lubricant volume in a transmission system reduces the churning losses and overall unit costs. However, lubricant volume reduction is also detrimental to the thermal stability of the system. Transmission overheating can result in significant issues in the region of loaded contacts, risking severe surface/sub-surface damage in bearings and gears, as well as reduction in the lubricant quality through advanced oxidation and shear degradation. The increasing trend of electrified transmission input speeds raises the importance of understanding the thermal limits of the system at the envelope of the performance to ensure quality and reliability can be maintained, as well as being a key factor in the development, effecting internal housing features for the promotion of lubrication. A nodal bearing thermal model will be shown which utilizes thermal resistances and smooth particle based CFD for determining bearing lubricant feed rates during operation.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Investigation and Optimization of Engine Starts in a HEV Powertrain

2022-03-29
2022-01-0484
The shift toward electrification and limitations in battery electric vehicle technology have led to high demand for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) that utilize a battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE) for propulsion. Although HEVs enable lower fuel consumption and emissions compared to conventional vehicles, they still require combustion of fuels for ICE operation. Thus, emissions from hybrid vehicles are still a major concern. Engine starts are a major source of emissions during any driving event, especially before the three-way catalyst (TWC) reaches its light-off temperature. Since the engine is subjected to multiple starts during most driving events, it is important to mitigate and better understand the impact of these emissions. In this study, experiments were conducted to analyze engine starts in a hybrid powertrain on different experimental setup.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of a 48V-Hybrid-Powertrain for L-Category Vehicles with Longitudinal Dynamic Simulation and Design of Experiments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0672
The demand for high efficiency powertrains in automotive engineering is further increasing, with hybrid powertrains being a feasible option to cope with new legislations. So far hybridization has only played a minor role for L-category vehicles. Focusing on an exemplary high-power L-category on-road vehicle, this research aims to show a new development approach, which combines longitudinal dynamic simulation (LDS) with “Design of Experiments” (DoE) in course of hybrid electric powertrain development. Furthermore, addressing the technological aspect, this paper points out how such a vehicle can benefit from 48V-hybridization of its already existing internal combustion powertrain. A fully parametric LDS model is built in Matlab/Simulink, with exchangeable powertrain components and an adaptable hybrid operation strategy. Beforehand, characterizing decisions as to focus on 48V and on parallel hybrid architecture are made.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

2022-03-29
2022-01-0593
Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0601
The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
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