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Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network-based emission control for future ICE concepts

The internal combustion engine contains several actuators to control the engine performance and emissions. These are controlled within the engine control unit and follow a certain operation strategy to achieve targets such as reduction of NOx emissions and fuel consumption. However, these two targets are contradictory, and a compromise is required. The operation state is depending on the system boundaries, such as engine speed, load, temperature levels and exhaust aftertreatment system efficiency. This leads to constantly changing target values to remain within the defined boundaries, in particular the legal emission limits. The conventional approach is using several operating modes. Each mode represents a specific compromise and is activated accordingly. To fulfil the emissions legislation, multiple modes are required, which increases the calibration efforts. This new control approach uses an artificial neural network that replaces the conventional multiple operation mode approach.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid IC Engine – Challenges of Hydrogen and E-Fuel Compatibility within Current Production Boundaries

Increasingly stringent greenhouse gas and emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Beside fully electric powertrains different configurations of hybrid powertrains will have an important role in upcoming and future vehicle generations. As already discussed in previous papers, the requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are different to those in a conventional powertrain solution, heading for brake thermal efficiency targets of 45% and above within the product lifecycle for conventional fuels. Focus on product cost and production and assembly facility investment drives reuse of technology packages within modular powertrain technology platforms, with different combinations of internal combustion engines (ICE), transmissions, and e-drive-layouts. The goal of zero carbon operation requires compatibility of ICE for sustainable fuels.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation of High-Speed EV Transmission Bearings for Minimum Lubricant Volume

Minimizing the lubricant volume in a transmission system reduces the churning losses and overall unit costs. However, lubricant volume reduction is also detrimental to the thermal stability of the system. Transmission overheating can result in significant issues in the region of loaded contacts, risking severe surface/sub-surface damage in bearings and gears, as well as reduction in the lubricant quality through advanced oxidation and shear degradation. The increasing trend of electrified transmission input speeds raises the importance of understanding the thermal limits of the system at the envelope of the performance to ensure quality and reliability can be maintained, as well as being a key factor in the development, effecting internal housing features for the promotion of lubrication. A nodal bearing thermal model will be shown which utilizes thermal resistances and smooth particle based CFD for determining bearing lubricant feed rates during operation.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Investigation and Optimization of Engine Starts in a HEV Powertrain

The shift toward electrification and limitations in battery electric vehicle technology have led to high demand for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) that utilize a battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE) for propulsion. Although HEVs enable lower fuel consumption and emissions compared to conventional vehicles, they still require combustion of fuels for ICE operation. Thus, emissions from hybrid vehicles are still a major concern. Engine starts are a major source of emissions during any driving event, especially before the three-way catalyst (TWC) reaches its light-off temperature. Since the engine is subjected to multiple starts during most driving events, it is important to mitigate and better understand the impact of these emissions. In this study, experiments were conducted to analyze engine starts in a hybrid powertrain on different experimental setup.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Technical Paper

Modular Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs

Global warming is the driver for introduction of CO2 and fuel consumption legislation worldwide. Indian truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian fuel efficiency norms. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes was completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation TOol VECTO. Indian rule makers are currently considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in India, too. Indian truck market has always been very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I has already led to a significant cost increase for emission compliance. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as the real-world operation will not be promoted by the government.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Technical Paper

Measurement Approaches for Variable Compression Ratio Systems

In the ongoing competition of powertrain concepts the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) will also have to demonstrate its potential for increased efficiency [1]. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Systems for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) can make an important contribution to meeting stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. Using such technology a CO2 reduction of between 5% and 9% in the World Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) are achievable, depending on vehicle class, load profile and power rating [2]. This paper provides a detailed description of the measurement approaches that are used during development of the AVL Dual Mode VCSTM and other VCR systems in fired operation. Results obtained from these measurements are typically used to calibrate or verify simulation models, which themselves are an integral part of the development of these systems [3].
Technical Paper

Future Diesel-Powertrain in LCV and SUV-Electrified, Modular Platform with Focus on Emission, Efficiency and Cost

Considering worldwide future emission and CO2-legislation for the Light Commercial Vehicle segment, a wide range of powertrain variants is expected. Dependent on the application use cases all powertrain combinations, from pure Diesel engine propulsion via various levels of hybridization, to pure battery electric vehicles will be in the market. Under this aspect as well as facing differing legal and market requirements, a modular approach is presented for the LCV and SUV Segment, which can be adapted flexibly to meet the different requirements. A displacement range of 2.0L to 2.3L, representing the current baseline in Europe is taken as basis. To best fulfill the commercial boundaries, tailored technology packages, based on a common global engine platform are defined and compared. These packages include engine related technical features for emission- and fuel consumption improvement, as well as electrification measures, in particular 48V-MHEV variants.
Technical Paper

Advanced CAE Methods for NVH Development of High-Speed Electric Axle

The rate in the electrification of vehicles has risen in recent years. With intensified development more and more attention is paid to the noise and vibration in such vehicles especially from the EDU (Electric Drive Unit). In this paper the main NVH simulation process of a high-speed E-axle up to 30,000 rpm for premium class vehicle application is presented. The high speed, high-power density and lightweight design introduces new challenges. Benchmarking of different EDUs and vehicles leads to targets which can be used at the early stage of development as subsystem targets. This paper shows the CAE methodology which can be used to verify the design and guarantee the target achievement. Using CAE both source and structure can be optimized to improve the NVH behavior.
Technical Paper

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Capable and Modular Modeling Concept for Virtual SI Engine Development

Spark Ignited (SI) combustions engines in combination with different degrees of hybridization are expected to play a major role in future vehicle propulsion. Due to the combustion principle and the related thermodynamic efficiency, it is especially challenging to meet future CO2 targets. The layout and optimization of the overall system requires novel methods in the development process which feature a seamless transition between real and virtual prototypes. Herein, engine models need to predict the entire engine operating range in steady-state and transient conditions and must respond to all relevant control inputs. In addition, the model must feature true real-time capability. This work presents a holistic and modular modeling framework, which considers all relevant processes in the complex chain of physical effects in SI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Modular Gasoline Engine Family for Hybrid Powertrains: Balancing Cost and Efficiency Optimization

The electrification of the powertrain is a prerequisite to meet future fuel consumption limits, while the internal combustion engine (ICE) will remain a key element of most production volume relevant powertrain concepts. High volume applications will be covered by electrified powertrains. The range will include parallel hybrids, 48V- or High voltage Mild- or Full hybrids, up to Serial hybrids. In the first configurations the ICE is the main propulsion, requiring the whole engine speed and load range including the transient operation. At serial hybrid applications the vehicle is generally electrically driven, the ICE provides power to drive the generator, either exclusively or supporting a battery charging concept. As the ICE is not mechanically coupled to the drive train, a reduction of the operating range and thus a partial simplification of the ICE is achievable.
Technical Paper

A holistic Development Method Based on AVL FRISC as Enabler for CO2 Reduction with Focus on Low Viscosity Oils

To achieve future fleet CO2 emission targets, all powertrain types, including those with internal combustion engines, need to achieve higher efficiency. Next to others the reduction of friction is one contributor to increase powertrain efficiency. The piston bore interface (PBI) accounts for up to 50 % of the total engine friction losses [1]. Optimizations in this area combined with the use of low viscosity oil, which can reduce the friction of further engine sub-systems, will therefore have a high positive impact. To assess the friction of the PBI whilst considering cross effects of other relevant parameters for mechanical function (e.g. blow-by & wear) and emissions (e.g. oil consumption) AVL has established a holistic development method based around the AVL FRISC (FRIction Single Cylinder) engine with a floating liner measurement concept.
Technical Paper

FCEV Performance Assessment - Electrochemical Fuel Cell and Battery Modelling on Vehicle Level

Fuel cell electric vehicles are a promising technology to create CO2- neutral mobility. Model-based development approaches are key to reduce costs and to raise efficiencies. A model on vehicle system level is discussed that balances the need of physical depth and computational performance. The vehicle model comprises the domains of mechanics, electrics, thermodynamics, cooling and controls. Detailed models of the fuel cell and battery are presented as a part of the system model. The models apply electrochemical approaches and spatial resolutions up to 3D. The models of both components are validated via 3D reference simulations showing a seamless parameter transfer between system level and CFD-based simulations. The validity of the vehicle model, including the electrochemical components, is demonstrated by simulating the Toyota Mirai vehicle. Simulation results of an NEDC are compared to measurements.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Dual Mode VCS Variable Compression System - System Integration and Vehicle Requirements

Future legislation scenarios as well as stringent CO2 targets, in particular under real driving conditions, will require the introduction of new and additional powertrain technologies. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). There is clearly a competition of new and different ICE-Technologies [1] including VCR. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The implementation of Miller or Atkinson cycles is an essential criterion for increased geometric Compression Ratio (CR). The DUAL MODE Variable Compression System (VCS)TM enables a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus of the compression ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.