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Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network-based emission control for future ICE concepts

The internal combustion engine contains several actuators to control the engine performance and emissions. These are controlled within the engine control unit and follow a certain operation strategy to achieve targets such as reduction of NOx emissions and fuel consumption. However, these two targets are contradictory, and a compromise is required. The operation state is depending on the system boundaries, such as engine speed, load, temperature levels and exhaust aftertreatment system efficiency. This leads to constantly changing target values to remain within the defined boundaries, in particular the legal emission limits. The conventional approach is using several operating modes. Each mode represents a specific compromise and is activated accordingly. To fulfil the emissions legislation, multiple modes are required, which increases the calibration efforts. This new control approach uses an artificial neural network that replaces the conventional multiple operation mode approach.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Capable and Modular Modeling Concept for Virtual SI Engine Development

Spark Ignited (SI) combustions engines in combination with different degrees of hybridization are expected to play a major role in future vehicle propulsion. Due to the combustion principle and the related thermodynamic efficiency, it is especially challenging to meet future CO2 targets. The layout and optimization of the overall system requires novel methods in the development process which feature a seamless transition between real and virtual prototypes. Herein, engine models need to predict the entire engine operating range in steady-state and transient conditions and must respond to all relevant control inputs. In addition, the model must feature true real-time capability. This work presents a holistic and modular modeling framework, which considers all relevant processes in the complex chain of physical effects in SI combustion.
Technical Paper

A Modular Gasoline Engine Family for Hybrid Powertrains: Balancing Cost and Efficiency Optimization

The electrification of the powertrain is a prerequisite to meet future fuel consumption limits, while the internal combustion engine (ICE) will remain a key element of most production volume relevant powertrain concepts. High volume applications will be covered by electrified powertrains. The range will include parallel hybrids, 48V- or High voltage Mild- or Full hybrids, up to Serial hybrids. In the first configurations the ICE is the main propulsion, requiring the whole engine speed and load range including the transient operation. At serial hybrid applications the vehicle is generally electrically driven, the ICE provides power to drive the generator, either exclusively or supporting a battery charging concept. As the ICE is not mechanically coupled to the drive train, a reduction of the operating range and thus a partial simplification of the ICE is achievable.
Technical Paper

A holistic Development Method Based on AVL FRISC as Enabler for CO2 Reduction with Focus on Low Viscosity Oils

To achieve future fleet CO2 emission targets, all powertrain types, including those with internal combustion engines, need to achieve higher efficiency. Next to others the reduction of friction is one contributor to increase powertrain efficiency. The piston bore interface (PBI) accounts for up to 50 % of the total engine friction losses [1]. Optimizations in this area combined with the use of low viscosity oil, which can reduce the friction of further engine sub-systems, will therefore have a high positive impact. To assess the friction of the PBI whilst considering cross effects of other relevant parameters for mechanical function (e.g. blow-by & wear) and emissions (e.g. oil consumption) AVL has established a holistic development method based around the AVL FRISC (FRIction Single Cylinder) engine with a floating liner measurement concept.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Dual Mode VCS Variable Compression System - System Integration and Vehicle Requirements

Future legislation scenarios as well as stringent CO2 targets, in particular under real driving conditions, will require the introduction of new and additional powertrain technologies. Beside the increasing electrification of the powertrain, it will be essential to utilize the full potential of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). There is clearly a competition of new and different ICE-Technologies [1] including VCR. VCR systems are expected to be introduced to a considerable number of next generation turbocharged Spark Ignited (SI) engines in certain vehicle classes. The implementation of Miller or Atkinson cycles is an essential criterion for increased geometric Compression Ratio (CR). The DUAL MODE Variable Compression System (VCS)TM enables a 2-stage variation of the connecting rod length and thus of the compression ratio (CR).
Technical Paper

Development of New I3 1.0L Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine

In recent years, more attentions have been paid to stringent legislations on fuel consumption and emissions. Turbocharged downsized gasoline direct injection (DI) engines are playing an increasing important role in OEM’s powertrain strategies and engine product portfolio. Dongfeng Motor (DFM) has developed a new 1.0 liter 3-cylinder Turbocharged gasoline DI (TGDI) engine (hereinafter referred to as C10TD) to meet the requirements of China 4th stage fuel consumption regulations and the China 6 emission standards. In this paper, the concept of the C10TD engine is explained to meet the powerful performance (torque 190Nm/1500-4500rpm and power 95kW/5500rpm), excellent part-load BSFC and NVH targets to ensure the drivers could enjoy the powerful output in quiet and comfortable environment without concerns about the fuel cost and pollution.
Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of a Quasi-Dimensional Dual Fuel (Diesel – Natural Gas) Combustion Model

This paper presents a newly developed quasi-dimensional multi-zone dual fuel combustion model, which has been integrated within the commercial engine system simulation framework. Model is based on the modified Multi-Zone Combustion Model and Fractal Combustion Model. Modified Multi-Zone Combustion Model handles the part of the combustion process that is governed by the mixing-controlled combustion, while the modified Fractal Combustion Model handles the part that is governed by the flame propagation through the combustion chamber. The developed quasi-dimensional dual fuel combustion model features phenomenological description of spray processes, i.e. liquid spray break-up, fresh charge entrainment, droplet heat-up and evaporation process. In order to capture the chemical effects on the ignition delay, special ignition delay table has been made.
Technical Paper

Local Deformation of Hollow Crankshafts under Transient Conditions and their Effect on Durability and Slider Bearing Behavior

This paper describes a numerical study of the effect of hollow crankshafts on crankshaft local strength and durability as well as slider bearing contact behavior. Crankshaft dynamic simulation for durability is still a challenging task, although numerical methods are already worldwide established and integrated part of nearly every standard engine development process. Such standard methods are based on flexible multi-body dynamic simulation, combined with Finite Element analysis and multi-axial fatigue evaluation. They use different levels of simplification and consider the most influencing phenomena relevant for durability. Lightweight design and downsizing require more and more detailed methods due to higher deformation of the crankshaft. This is especially true for hollow shafts, as present in motorsport design or aerospace applications, but also for standard engine having high potential for significant weight savings.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Noise Quality Parameters for Efficient TC Noise Assessment and Refinement

Due to more challenging future emission legislations and the trend towards downsizing, the number of turbocharged (TC) engines, especially petrol engines, is steadily increasing. The usage of TC has high risk to cause different noise phenomena apparent in the vehicle interior which are often perceived as annoying for the passengers. In order to further improve consideration of TC topics in the development, objective judgment and monitoring of TC noise issues is of high importance. Therefore, objective parameters and corresponding tools that are especially focusing on TC noise phenomena have to be developed. One main target of these tools is to deliver an objective TC assessment in an efficient way and with minimum additional effort. Application of the criteria presented in this publication therefore allows acoustic engineers to judge the NVH behavior and annoyance of the TC with respect to its vehicle interior noise contribution.
Technical Paper

Performance Attributes for Root Cause Detection of Piston Induced Noise

Modern powertrain noise investigation in the development process and during trouble shooting is a combination of experiment and simulation. In simulation in recent years main focus was set on model completeness, consideration of all excitation mechanisms and efficient and stabile numerical algorithms. By that the total response of the virtual powertrain is already comparable to the overall noise level of the real powertrain. Actual challenge is to trace back the overall response to its main excitation and noise generating mechanism as well as to their main driving parameters to support the engineer not only in reaching absolute values, but also to derive the root cause of a response or potential problem and to get hints on how to improve the specific behavior. Approaches by parameter sensitivity studies are time consuming and not unambiguous.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

In recent years concern has arisen over a new combustion anomaly, which was not commonly associated with naturally aspirated engines. This phenomenon referred to as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), which often leads to potentially damaging peak cylinder pressures, is the most important factor limiting further downsizing and the potential CO2 benefits that it could bring. Previous studies have identified several potential triggers for pre-ignition where engine oil seems to have an important influence. Many studies [1], [2] have reported that detached oil droplets from the piston crevice volume lead to auto-ignition prior to spark ignition. Furthermore, wall wetting and subsequently oil dilution [3] and changes in the oil properties by impinging fuel on the cylinder wall seem to have a significant influence in terms of accumulation and detachment of oil-fuel droplets in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender: Development for Lowest Vibrations and Compact Design Based on Existing Production Parts

The automotive trend towards increased levels of electrification is showing a clear direction for hybrid technologies. Nowadays Mild- and plug-in-hybrids open a very wide area of future developments whereas battery electric vehicles (BEV) are still evident but still perceived as niche products with limited production volumes. Nevertheless, major OEMs are working on these kinds of vehicles and have also brought such EV concepts into series production. All of these designs show a clear trend that, beside the topic of electric traction motor and energy storage systems, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is also coming into focus again. In many of these vehicles the range extender (RE) unit is foreseen as an emergency unit to recharge the batteries if the state of charge (SOC) is too low. One of the major advantages of a BEV over other designs is the very good acoustic behavior, so the NVH performance becomes the most challenging topic for RE development.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling for Closed Loop Combustion Control - A Thermodynamic Consistent and Real-Time Capable Approach

Direct injection Diesel engines are a propulsion technology that is continuously developed to meet emission standards. Great optimization potential lies in the combustion process itself. The application of closed loop combustion control allows reacting online to environmental conditions and stabilizing the combustion regarding performance and emissions. Dedicated real-time plant models help to develop and calibrate control algorithms in office and hardware in the loop environments. The present work describes a real-time capable, crank-angle resolved engine, cylinder and combustion model. The cylinder applies an 0D, two-zone approach and a phenomenological combustion model describes ignition delay, premixed and diffusive combustion. The latter is enhanced by a quasi-dimensional description of the injection spray. The model is validated with dedicated measurements. The plant model is applied in two use-cases for closed loop combustion control.