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Technical Paper

Metrics Based Design of Electromechanical Coupled Reduced Order Model of an Electric Powertrain for NVH Assessment

2024-06-12
2024-01-2913
Electric vehicles offer cleaner transportation with lower emissions, thus their increased popularity. Although, electric powertrains contribute to quieter vehicles, the shift from internal combustion engines to electric powertrains presents new Noise, Vibration, and Harshness challenges. Unlike traditional engines, electric powertrains produce distinctive tonal noise, notably from motor whistles and gear whine. These tonal components have frequency content, sometimes above 10 kHz. Furthermore, the housing of the powertrain is the interface between the excitation from the driveline via the bearings and the radiated noise (NVH). Acoustic features of the radiated noise can be predicted by utilising the transmitted forces from the bearings. Due to tonal components at higher frequencies and dense modal content, full flexible multibody dynamics simulations are computationally expensive.
Technical Paper

Impact of Injection Valve Condition on Data-driven Prediction of Key Combustion Parameters Based on an Intelligent Diesel Fuel Injector for Large Engine Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2836
The advent of digitalization opens up new avenues for advances in large internal combustion engine technology. Key engine components are becoming "intelligent" through advanced instrumentation and data analytics. By generating value-added data, they provide deeper insight into processes related to the components. An intelligent common rail diesel fuel injection valve for large engine applications in combination with machine learning allows reliable prediction of key combustion parameters such as maximum cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and indicated mean effective pressure. However, fault-related changes to the injection valve also have to be considered. Based on experiments on a medium-speed four-stroke single-cylinder research engine with a displacement of approximately 15.7 liter, this study investigates the extent to which the intelligent injection valve can improve the reliability of combustion parameter predictions in the presence of injection valve faults.
Technical Paper

Additive Manufacturing in Powertrain Development – From Prototyping to Dedicated Production Design

2024-04-09
2024-01-2578
Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining modular component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization. At the same time focus on reduced development time, product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining, and assembly facilities as far as possible. Up to date additive manufacturing (AM) is an established prototype component, as well as tooling technology in the powertrain development process, accelerating procurement time and cost, as well as allowing to validate a significantly increased number of variants. The production applications of optimized, dedicated AM-based component design however are still limited.
Technical Paper

Viability of Alternative Fuels to Decarbonize the World’s Largest Agricultural Tractor Market

2024-01-16
2024-26-0065
India is the market with the highest sales of agricultural tractors and the market with the highest number of agricultural tractor park, as well. Even though taking into account the lower average power of Indian agricultural tractors compared to regions with considerably larger field sizes, their cumulated diesel fuel consumption reaches a significant size. The possible use of alternative powertrains like battery-electric, especially considering the lower power of the Indian tractor market, seems feasible, but might be struggling with challenges in terms of charging infrastructure and the possibly resulting lower productivity due to required charging times. Therefore AVL proposes to investigate the use of alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, a topic which is also being discussed by other global tractor OEMs. In that context the focus is typically on higher tractor powers due to current storage limitations of battery-electric systems and other alternatives.
Technical Paper

Industrialization of the Commercial Hydrogen Engine till 2025

2024-01-16
2024-26-0167
India striving for carbon neutrality influences futures powertrain architecture of commercial vehicles. The use of CO2-free drives as battery electric have been demonstrated for various applications. The productivity still is a challenge due to missing high power charging infrastructure or limited range. This draws the attention to the use of sustainable fuels due to lower refueling times. The hydrogen engine got highest attention in the last couple of years. For markets as the EU the driver for hydrogen is the CO2 emission reduction, whereas for markets as India hydrogen offers the additional opportunity for more independence from fossil imports. Different OEMs all over the world have converted diesel engines to hydrogen operation with strong focus on performance and emission demonstration, so far with limited technology readiness of different key components.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network-Based Emission Control for Future ICE Concepts

2023-10-31
2023-01-1605
The internal combustion engine contains several actuators to control engine performance and emissions. These are controlled within the engine ECU and follow a specific operating strategy to achieve objectives such as NOx reduction and fuel economy. However, these two goals are conflicting and a compromise is required. The operating state depends on system constraints such as engine speed, load, temperature levels, and aftertreatment system efficiency. This results in constantly changing target values to stay within the defined limits, especially the legal emission limits. The conventional approach is to use multiple operating modes. Each mode represents a specific compromise and is activated accordingly. Multiple modes are required to meet emissions regulations under all required conditions, which increases the calibration effort. This new control approach uses an artificial neural network to replace the conventional multiple mode approach.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

2023-08-28
2023-24-0077
Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid IC Engine – Challenges of Hydrogen and E-Fuel Compatibility within Current Production Boundaries

2023-04-11
2023-01-0397
Increasingly stringent greenhouse gas and emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Beside fully electric powertrains different configurations of hybrid powertrains will have an important role in upcoming and future vehicle generations. As already discussed in previous papers, the requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are different to those in a conventional powertrain solution, heading for brake thermal efficiency targets of 45% and above within the product lifecycle for conventional fuels. Focus on product cost and production and assembly facility investment drives reuse of technology packages within modular powertrain technology platforms, with different combinations of internal combustion engines (ICE), transmissions, and e-drive-layouts. The goal of zero carbon operation requires compatibility of ICE for sustainable fuels.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of Combustion Process in the Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine

2023-04-11
2023-01-0206
Fully flexible dual fuel (DF) internal combustion (IC) engines, that can burn diesel and gas simultaneously, have become established among heavy-duty engines as they contribute significantly to lower the environmental impact of the transport sector. In order to gain better understanding of the DF combustion process and establish an effective design methodology for DFIC engines, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools are needed. The DF strategy poses new challenges for numerical modelling of the combustion process since all combustion regimes have to be modelled simultaneously. Furthermore, DF engines exhibit higher cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) compared to the pure diesel engines. This issue can be addressed by employing large eddy simulation coupled with appropriate DF detailed chemistry mechanism. However, such an approach is computationally too expensive for today’s industry-related engine calculations.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Testing Methodology for Vehicle Class and Usage Based Validation

2022-08-30
2022-01-1101
System lubrication in automotive powertrains is a growing topic for development engineers. Hybrid and pure combustion system complexity increases in search of improved efficiency and better control strategy, increasing the number of components with lubrication demand and the interplay between them, while fully electric systems drive for higher input speeds to increase e-motor efficiency, increasing bearing and gear feed rate demands. Added to this, many e-axle and hybrid systems are in development with a shared medium and circuit for e-motor cooling and transmission lubrication. Through all this, the lubricant forms a common thread and is a fundamental component in the system, but no standardized tests can provide a suitable methodology to investigate the adequate lubrication of components at powertrain level, to support the final planned vehicle usage.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Investigation and Optimization of Engine Starts in a HEV Powertrain

2022-03-29
2022-01-0484
The shift toward electrification and limitations in battery electric vehicle technology have led to high demand for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) that utilize a battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE) for propulsion. Although HEVs enable lower fuel consumption and emissions compared to conventional vehicles, they still require combustion of fuels for ICE operation. Thus, emissions from hybrid vehicles are still a major concern. Engine starts are a major source of emissions during any driving event, especially before the three-way catalyst (TWC) reaches its light-off temperature. Since the engine is subjected to multiple starts during most driving events, it is important to mitigate and better understand the impact of these emissions. In this study, experiments were conducted to analyze engine starts in a hybrid powertrain on different experimental setup.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of a 48V-Hybrid-Powertrain for L-Category Vehicles with Longitudinal Dynamic Simulation and Design of Experiments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0672
The demand for high efficiency powertrains in automotive engineering is further increasing, with hybrid powertrains being a feasible option to cope with new legislations. So far hybridization has only played a minor role for L-category vehicles. Focusing on an exemplary high-power L-category on-road vehicle, this research aims to show a new development approach, which combines longitudinal dynamic simulation (LDS) with “Design of Experiments” (DoE) in course of hybrid electric powertrain development. Furthermore, addressing the technological aspect, this paper points out how such a vehicle can benefit from 48V-hybridization of its already existing internal combustion powertrain. A fully parametric LDS model is built in Matlab/Simulink, with exchangeable powertrain components and an adaptable hybrid operation strategy. Beforehand, characterizing decisions as to focus on 48V and on parallel hybrid architecture are made.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0601
The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

2022-03-29
2022-01-0593
Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Technical Paper

Modular Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs

2021-09-22
2021-26-0049
Global warming is the driver for introduction of CO2 and fuel consumption legislation worldwide. Indian truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian fuel efficiency norms. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes was completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation TOol VECTO. Indian rule makers are currently considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in India, too. Indian truck market has always been very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I has already led to a significant cost increase for emission compliance. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as the real-world operation will not be promoted by the government.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

2021-09-22
2021-26-0449
Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Technical Paper

Measurement Approaches for Variable Compression Ratio Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0649
In the ongoing competition of powertrain concepts the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) will also have to demonstrate its potential for increased efficiency [1]. Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Systems for Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) can make an important contribution to meeting stringent global fuel economy and CO2 standards. Using such technology a CO2 reduction of between 5% and 9% in the World Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle (WLTC) are achievable, depending on vehicle class, load profile and power rating [2]. This paper provides a detailed description of the measurement approaches that are used during development of the AVL Dual Mode VCSTM and other VCR systems in fired operation. Results obtained from these measurements are typically used to calibrate or verify simulation models, which themselves are an integral part of the development of these systems [3].
Technical Paper

Future Diesel-Powertrain in LCV and SUV-Electrified, Modular Platform with Focus on Emission, Efficiency and Cost

2021-04-06
2021-01-0635
Considering worldwide future emission and CO2-legislation for the Light Commercial Vehicle segment, a wide range of powertrain variants is expected. Dependent on the application use cases all powertrain combinations, from pure Diesel engine propulsion via various levels of hybridization, to pure battery electric vehicles will be in the market. Under this aspect as well as facing differing legal and market requirements, a modular approach is presented for the LCV and SUV Segment, which can be adapted flexibly to meet the different requirements. A displacement range of 2.0L to 2.3L, representing the current baseline in Europe is taken as basis. To best fulfill the commercial boundaries, tailored technology packages, based on a common global engine platform are defined and compared. These packages include engine related technical features for emission- and fuel consumption improvement, as well as electrification measures, in particular 48V-MHEV variants.
Technical Paper

HEV Evaluation in Simulation Phase Based on Predicted Sound Behavior

2020-09-30
2020-01-1511
Grown interest in complex modern Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) concepts has raised new challenges in the field of NVH. The switch between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Motor (EM) at low speeds produces undesirable vibrations and a sudden raise of noise levels that effects the sound quality and passenger comfort achieved by the close-to-silent electric powertrain operation. Starting the ICE in the most suitable driving situation to create a seamless transition between driving modes can be the key to minimize the NVH quality impact in driver and passenger’s perception in HEVs. To integrate this important aspect in the early stages of the development and design phase, simulation technologies can be used to address the customer acceptance. By analyzing NVH measurements, the different noise components of the vehicle operation can be separated into ICE-related noise, EM-related noise and driving noise.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Capable and Modular Modeling Concept for Virtual SI Engine Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-0577
Spark Ignited (SI) combustions engines in combination with different degrees of hybridization are expected to play a major role in future vehicle propulsion. Due to the combustion principle and the related thermodynamic efficiency, it is especially challenging to meet future CO2 targets. The layout and optimization of the overall system requires novel methods in the development process which feature a seamless transition between real and virtual prototypes. Herein, engine models need to predict the entire engine operating range in steady-state and transient conditions and must respond to all relevant control inputs. In addition, the model must feature true real-time capability. This work presents a holistic and modular modeling framework, which considers all relevant processes in the complex chain of physical effects in SI combustion.
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