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Technical Paper

Analytical Wall-Function Strategy for the Modelling of Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Automotive CFD Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-0206
In contrast to the well-established “standard” log-law wall function, the analytical wall function (AWF) as an advanced modelling approach has not been extensively used in the industrial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. As the model was originally developed aiming at computations on relatively coarse meshes, potential stability issues may arise due to the pressure-gradient sensitivity if employing locally inappropriate mesh layers, typically associated with the complex geometry details. This work evaluates performance of the thermal AWF, as proposed by Suga [4], in conjunction with the main flow field computed employing the k-ζ-f turbulence model and the hybrid wall treatment (denoted as AWF-e) within the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) framework.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Combustion and Knock Modelling Using Detailed Fuel Surrogate Models and Tabulated Chemistry

2019-04-02
2019-01-0205
In the context of today’s and future legislative requirements for NOx and soot particle emissions as well as today’s market trends for further efficiency gains in gasoline engines, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models need to further improve their intrinsic predictive capability to fulfill OEM needs towards the future. Improving fuel chemistry modelling, knock predictions and the modelling of the interaction between the chemistry and turbulent flow are three key challenges to improve the predictivity of CFD simulations of Spark-Ignited (SI) engines. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) combustion modelling approach addresses these challenges. By using chemistry pre-tabulation technologies, today’s most detailed fuel chemistry models can be included in the CFD simulation. This allows a much more refined description of auto-ignition delays for knock as well as radical concentrations which feed into emission models, at comparable or even reduced overall CFD run-time.
Technical Paper

Modular and Swappable 48V Battery Systems for Emerging Markets

2019-01-09
2019-26-0032
Electrification globally shows promise in reducing greenhouse and noxious emissions. Although there is immense potential in such technologies penetrating across vehicle segments in the Indian market, the key lies in offering scalable, cost effective battery solutions suiting the diverse product and customer needs. This paper describes the development and possible applications of a low voltage battery system that fulfills the current needs on the Indian market. Based on real-world driving profiles the energy and power output required for the target platform are determined. Keeping in mind the Indian operating conditions, safety requirements, driving behavior, charging infrastructure, operational costs, supplier network and serviceability, technical requirements for such systems are described. Also, benchmarking data of current battery systems help to optimize the mechanical, thermal, and electrical layouts.
Technical Paper

Methodology and Tools to Predict GDI Injector Tip Wetting as Predecessor of Tip Sooting

2018-04-03
2018-01-0286
With upcoming emission regulations particle emissions for GDI engines are challenging engine and injector developers. Despite the introduction of GPFs, engine-out emission should be optimized to avoid extra cost and exhaust backpressure. Engine tests with a state of the art Miller GDI engine showed up to 200% increased particle emissions over the test duration due to injector deposit related diffusion flames. No spray altering deposits have been found inside the injector nozzle. To optimize this tip sooting behavior a tool chain is presented which involves injector multiphase simulations, a spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm model and testing. First the flow inside the injector is analyzed based on a 3D-XRay model. The next step is a Lagrangian spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm module which is used to simulate the fuel impingement on the injector tip and counter-bores.
Technical Paper

Results, Assessment and Legislative Relevance of RDE and Fuel Consumption Measurements of Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0042
The reduction of environmentally harmful gases and the ambitions to reduce the exploitation of fossil resources lead to stricter legislation for all mobile sources. Legislative development significantly affected improvements in emissions and fuel consumptions over the last years, mainly measured under laboratory conditions. But real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and it is already well known that these values considerably differ from officially published figures [1]. There are regulated emissions by the European Commission by means of real driving scenarios for passenger cars. A methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is therefore well approved for automotive applications but was not adapted for two-wheeler-applications yet [2]. Hence measurements have been performed on-road and on chassis dynamometer for motorcycles with the state of the art RDE measurement equipment to be prepared for possible future legislation.
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development of a High Performance and Fuel Efficient TGDI Engine Guided by CFD Simulation and Test

2017-10-08
2017-01-2282
A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Combustion and Emission Processes in Diesel Engines Based on a Tabulated Chemistry Approach

2017-10-08
2017-01-2200
Turbulent combustion modeling in a RANS or LES context imposes the challenge of closing the chemical reaction rate on the sub-grid level. Such turbulent models have as their two main ingredients sources from chemical reactions and turbulence-chemistry interaction. The various combustion models then differ mainly by how the chemistry is calculated (level of detail, canonical flame model) and on the other hand how turbulence is assumed to affect the reaction rate on the sub-grid level (TCI - turbulence-chemistry interaction). In this work, an advanced combustion model based on tabulated chemistry is applied for 3D CFD (computational fluid dynamics) modeling of Diesel engine cases. The combustion model is based on the FGM (Flamelet Generated Manifold) chemistry reduction technique. The underlying chemistry tabulation process uses auto-ignition trajectories of homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, which are computed with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Solutions for Electrified Trucks and Buses

2017-05-10
2017-01-1937
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Impact of GHG-Phase II and Ultra Low NOx on the Base Powertrain

2017-05-10
2017-01-1925
With the implementation of EURO VI and similar emission legislation, the industry assumed the pace and stringency of new legislation would be reduced in the future. The latest announcements of proposed and implemented legislation steps show that future legislation will be even more stringent. The currently leading announced legislation, which concerns a large number of global manufacturers, is the legislation from the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Both announced new legislation for CO2, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Phase II. CARB is also planning additional Ultra Low NOx regulations. Both regulations are significant and will require a number of technologies to be used in order to achieve the challenging limits. AVL published some engine related measures to address these legislation steps.
Technical Paper

Highly Integrated Fuel Cell Analysis Infrastructure for Advanced Research Topics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1180
The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1661
The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands for connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X). Due to this connectivity, it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks.
Technical Paper

Testing of a Long Haul Demonstrator Vehicle with a Waste Heat Recovery System on Public Road

2016-09-27
2016-01-8057
This paper presents the results of a long haul truck Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system from simulation, test bench and public road testing. The WHR system uses exhaust gas recuperation only and utilizes up to 110kW of exhaust waste heat for the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) in a typical European driving cycle. The testing and simulation procedures are explained in detail together with the tested and simulated WHR fuel consumption benefit for different real life cycles in Europe and USA reaching fuel consumption benefits between 2.5% and 3.4%. Additionally a technology road map is shown which discusses the role of WHR in fulfilling the future CARB BSFC target value (minimum in map) of around 172 g/kWh.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulations of the Flow in Intake Port Geometries

2016-04-05
2016-01-0589
A computational study of the flow in intake port geometries has been performed. Three different intake port geometries, namely two combined tangential and helical ports and one quiescent port were analyzed. Each of these cases was calculated for different valve lifts and the results were compared with available measurements. The focus of this paper is on the performance assessment of the variable resolution Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method. Calculations have been also performed with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, which is presently a state-of-the-art approach for this application in the industry. Besides the averaged integral values like a discharge coefficient and a swirl coefficient, the predicted velocity magnitude fields at the measured cross sections of the ports are compared due to available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

About Describing the Knocking Combustion in Gasoline and Gas Engines by CFD Methods

2015-09-01
2015-01-1911
Spark ignited engines are today operated more and more often under high load conditions, where one reason can be identified in the necessity of increasing the efficiency and hence reducing fuel consumption and specific CO2 emissions. Since the gasoline engine operation is inherently limited by knocking at high loads, strategies must be identified, which allow reliable identification and simulation of the appearance of this undesirable type of combustion. A new numerical model for the description of those kinds of pre-flame reactions in a CFD framework is discussed in this paper. Despite emphasis is put here on the auto-ignition effects, it will also be explained that the model is capable of supporting the engine development process in all combustion and emission related aspects.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based Calibration for Drivability Using a Virtual Engine Test Cell

2015-04-14
2015-01-1628
Increasing powertrain complexity and the growing number of vehicle variants are putting a strain on current calibration development processes. This is particularly challenging for vehicle drivability calibration, which is traditionally completed late in the development cycle, only after mature vehicle hardware is available. Model-based calibration enables a shift in development tasks from the real world to the virtual world, allowing for increased system robustness while reducing development costs and time. A unique approach for drivability calibration was developed by incorporating drivability analysis software with online optimization software into a virtual engine test cell environment. Real-time, physics-based engine and vehicle simulation models were coupled with real engine controller hardware and software to execute automated drivability calibration within this environment.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0183
Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Technical Paper

Integrated Toolchain for Powertrain Optimization for Indian Commercial Vehicles

2015-01-14
2015-26-0032
Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the entire powertrain, hence match engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The very specific real world driving conditions in India (e.g. traffic situations, road conditions, driver behavior, etc.) and the large number of possible commercial powertrain combinations request an efficient and effective development methodology. This paper presents a methodology and tool chain to specify and develop commercial powertrains in a most efficient and effective way. The methodology is based on the measurement of real world driving scenarios, identification of representative Real World Driving Profiles and vehicle system simulation which allows extended analysis of the road topography, the traffic situation as well as the driver behavior.
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