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Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development of a High Performance and Fuel Efficient TGDI Engine Guided by CFD Simulation and Test

2017-10-08
2017-01-2282
A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Integrated Toolchain for Powertrain Optimization for Indian Commercial Vehicles

2015-01-14
2015-26-0032
Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the entire powertrain, hence match engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The very specific real world driving conditions in India (e.g. traffic situations, road conditions, driver behavior, etc.) and the large number of possible commercial powertrain combinations request an efficient and effective development methodology. This paper presents a methodology and tool chain to specify and develop commercial powertrains in a most efficient and effective way. The methodology is based on the measurement of real world driving scenarios, identification of representative Real World Driving Profiles and vehicle system simulation which allows extended analysis of the road topography, the traffic situation as well as the driver behavior.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender as Alternative to a Rotary Engine Maintaining High Compactness and NVH Performance

2013-10-15
2013-32-9132
Due to the restricted capacity of today's battery systems and therefore limited operating range of electric vehicles (EV), several solutions for recharging the energy storage during driving already have been published and still are the subject of extensive development programs. One example is the Range Extender (RE), which is a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) with a generator unit, which serves the purpose of a power back-up in case of a battery with low state of charge (SOC), without any direct connection to the drivetrain. For this kind of RE-application, different boundary conditions are very important. Especially in EVs topics like packaging space and NVH behavior play a main role. To fulfill these important characteristics, AVL has developed a Wankel-RE unit in which the generator is driven directly from the eccentric shaft of the rotary-piston ICE.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis for In - Vehicle Application

2013-01-09
2013-26-0115
Traditional power train development work is concentrated mainly on test bed and on chassis dyno. Though we can simulate a lot of real world conditions on testbed and chassis dyno today, on road application work willis gaining more attention. This means that strategies and tools for invehicle testing under real world conditions are becoming more important. Emission, performance, fuel economy, combustion noise and driving comfort are linked to combustion quality, i.e. quality of fuel mixture preparation and flame propagation. The known testing and research equipment is only partly or not at all applicable for in-vehicle development work. New tools for on the road testing are required. Following, a general view on in-vehicle power train testing will be given. Additionally, new ways to investigate cylinder and cycle specific soot formation in GDI engines with fiber optic tools will be presented.
Technical Paper

Functional Integration as Key for Affordable Electrified Passenger Car Powertrains

2013-01-09
2013-26-0067
Further fuel efficiency improvements are mandatory in order to achieve the CO2 emission limits envisaged in the future. Electrification of the powertrain is seen as one of the key technologies to achieve these future goals. However, electrification of the power train typically goes with a massive cost increase of the overall system itself which is especially crucial for cost sensitive markets like India. AVL's approach to cost reduction for comparable performance and fuel consumption target values is an integration of functions. This paper demonstrates that, through a deeper interaction of the single powertrain components, further fuel efficiency optimization may be gained. System optimization at a powertrain level enables the achievement of future powertrain targets with respect to fuel efficiency and performance with only minimal and reduced requirements at a component level (i.e. combustion engine, electric drive, transmission and battery).
Journal Article

Compact Engine Architecture for Best Fuel Efficiency and High Performance - Challenge or Contradiction

2011-11-08
2011-32-0595
The world of automotive engineering shows a clear direction for upcoming development trends. Stringent fleet average fuel consumption targets and CO2 penalties as well as rising fuel prices and the consumer demand to lower operating costs increases the engineering efforts to optimize fuel economy. Passenger car engines have the benefit of higher degree of technology which can be utilized to reach the challenging targets. Variable valve timing, downsizing and turbo charging, direct gasoline injection, highly sophisticated operating strategies and even more electrification are already common technologies in the automotive industry but can not be directly carried over into a motorcycle application. The major differences like very small packaging space, higher rated speeds, higher power density in combination with lower production numbers and product costs do not allow implementation such high of degree of advanced technology into small-engine applications.
Technical Paper

Reducing Emissions and Improving Fuel Economy by Optimized Combustion of Alternative Fuels

2011-10-06
2011-28-0050
Alternative fuels, especially fuels based on biological matter, are gaining more and more attention. Not only as a pure substitute of oil but also in terms of a possibility for further reduction in emission and as an option to improve the global CO2 balance. For improving the engine performance (emissions, fuel consumption, torque and drivability) the adjustment of fuel injection, the fuel evaporation process and the combustion process itself is paramount. In order to exploit the full potential of alternative fuels excellent knowledge of the fuel properties, including the impact on ignition and flame propagation, is required. This needs suitable tools for analysis of the fuel injection and combustion process. These tools have to support the optimization of the combustion system and the dynamic engine calibration for lowest emissions and most efficient use of fuel. As the term “Alternative Fuels” covers a very wide area a brief overview on available fuel types will be made.
Technical Paper

Two-Cylinder Gasoline Engine Concept for Highly Integrated Range Extender and Hybrid Powertrain Applications

2010-09-28
2010-32-0130
The demand for improved fuel economy and the request for Zero Emission within cities require complex powertrains with an increasing level of electrification already in a short-termed timeframe until 2025. According to general expectations the demand for Mild-Hybrid powertrains will increase significantly within a broad range of implementation through all vehicle classes as well as on electric vehicles with integrated Range Extender (RE) mainly for use in urban areas. Whereas Mild Hybrid Vehicles basically use downsized combustion engines at current technology level, vehicles with a high level of powertrain electrification allow significantly different internal combustion engine (ICE) concepts. At AVL, various engine concepts have been investigated and evaluated with respect to the key criteria for a Range Extender application. A Wankel rotary engine concept as well as an inline 2 cylinder gasoline engine turned out to be most promising.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Journal Article

High Performance Cooling and EGR Systems as a Contribution to Meeting Future Emission Standards

2008-04-14
2008-01-1199
In relation to further tightening of the emissions legislation for on-road heavy duty Diesel engines, the future potential of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a result of developments in the cooling systems of such engines has been evaluated. Four basic engine concepts were investigated: an engine with SCR exhaust gas aftertreatment for control of the nitrogen oxides (NOx), an engine with cooled EGR and particulate (PM) filtration, an engine with low pressure EGR and PM filtration and an engine with two stage low temperature cooled EGR also with a particulate filter. A 10.5 litre engine was calibrated and tested under conditions representative for each concept, such that 1.7 g/kWh (1.3 g/bhp-hr) NOx could be achieved over the ESC and ETC. This corresponds to emissions 15% below the Euro 5 legislation level.
Technical Paper

Consistent Development Methodology for hybrid AWD powertrains

2008-01-09
2008-28-0003
Highest grow or highest attention in vehicles power-train is related to AWD and hybrid concepts. Some of the targets for these technologies are conflicting, others are very similar, and sometimes it depends on the application. In a first look it is very questionable weather these technologies should be combined. But it can be shown, that the combination makes quite some sense. It is possible to get the superior performance and enhance safety combined with reasonable fuel economy by hybridizing an AWD powertrain. From simulation to testing, efficient processes and a consistent development platform is key to fulfill all the development tasks in the environment of this increased complexity. Simulation and benchmark activities are valuable in the early project phases to define the targets and create the specifications. In the virtual world the system selection is a major task. To get appropriate results software modules are incorporated in the simulation environment.
Technical Paper

The Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment (DEXA) Cluster: A Systematic Approach to Diesel Particulate Emission Control in Europe

2004-03-08
2004-01-0694
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
Technical Paper

CSI - Controlled Auto Ignition - the Best Solution for the Fuel Consumption - Versus Emission Trade-Off?

2003-03-03
2003-01-0754
In recent years several new gasoline engine technologies were introduced in order to reduce fuel consumption. Controlled autoignition seems to be an alternative to stratified part load operation, which is handicapped due to it's lean aftertreatment system for world wide application. The principal advantages of controlled auto ignition combustion under steady state operation - combining fuel economy benefits similar to stratified charge systems with nearly negligible NOx and soot emissions - are already well known. With the newly developed AVL- CSI system (Compression and Spark Ignition), a precise combustion control is achieved even under transient operation. For compensation of production and operation tolerances a cost optimized cylinder individual control was developed. Completely new functionalities of the engine management system are applied. This lean GDI concept complies with future emission standards without DeNOx catalyst and can be applied worldwide.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Simplification-Ways Towards Improved Fuel Economy

2002-03-04
2002-01-0236
A broad variety of new technologies for improving fuel economy is currently under development or investigation. The general statement is that always a compromise between fuel economy benefit and engine oncost has to be found. This paper describes a new way for improving fuel economy based on existing technologies used in a refined way. It is shown that with very simple and robust measures on the intake and exhaust ports and on the valve train mechanism 2 valve and 4 valve engines can show a significant improvement in fuel consumption without having a great cost penalty for production. The basic system consists of a single cam phaser and a special port arrangement on a 2 valve engine with a single camshaft operated at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio utilizing internal EGR and a reverse “Miller-Cycle”. Variable charge motion is generated using a shared flow through the intake and the exhaust port by varying cam timing.
Technical Paper

The Clean Heavy Duty Diesel Engine of the Future: Strategies for Emission Compliance

2001-11-01
2001-28-0045
The internal combustion engines, and the heavy duty truck diesel engines in particular, are facing a severe challenge to cope with the upcoming stringent emission legislation world-wide. To comply with these low limits, engine internal measures must be complemented with exhaust gas aftertreatment systems with sophisticated electronic control. A reduction of NOx and particulate emission of more than 90% is required. Various strategies to comply with Euro 4, 5 and US 2007 are discussed, also in view of engine performance, fuel economy and cooling system load. Recommendations are given for the most suitable approach to comply also in future with emission legislation in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the DI Gasoline Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0251
Regarding concepts for naturally aspirated engines, the high potential for fuel economy of Gasoline Direct Injection can only partially be utilized within the constraints of current or future emission legislation like EURO III / IV or LEV/ULEV. Instead of an expected improvement of 20 - 25 % currently only 10 - 15% can be obtained by the engine alone without vehicle optimizations considering all limitations of high volume production. A detailed analysis reveals concrete measures for further improvement. The application of DI gasoline technology clearly favors the combination with other fuel efficient technologies like downsizing by turbocharging and the application of a variable effective compression ratio by intake valve timing variation. Using the flexibility of direct gasoline injection some deficiencies of these technologies can be eliminated.
Technical Paper

ULEV and Fuel Economy - A Contradiction?

2000-03-06
2000-01-1209
The CBR (Controlled Burn Rate) technology for MPFI engines is known to enable the reduction of throttle losses of gasoline engines by high EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) rates due to the dilution tolerance of the swirl charge motion system using port deactivation. Now a new aspect of CBR is being developed: extremely low emissions during and after cold start. This paper is focused on the combustion stability and low emission aspects of CBR technology. It is shown how engine out emissions and catalyst light off behavior of an engine can be significantly improved using port deactivation. The very stable combustion directly after engine start, extremely retarded ignition timings in combination with lean engine operation and open valve injection with minimized wall wetting lead to very low HC emissions and very high exhaust gas temperatures.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driveability Assessment using Neural Networks for Development, Calibration and Quality Tests

2000-03-06
2000-01-0702
Actual automotive themes in the beginning century are globalization and platform concepts. Platforms reduce manpower for basic power train development and enable a higher vehicle quality by sharing development cost to many models. New drive train generations with direct injected diesel and gasoline engines, variable valve train systems and hybrid drives require complex electronic control systems with many control parameters, which must be calibrated for each platform model to fulfill the targets for emissions, diagnostics and driveability. Calibration becomes a critical procedure in vehicle development. A negative effect of the platform is the reduced possibility to give a model or an OEM a brand specific driveability character, traditionally an important sales - promoting factor. The paper describes a tool for the objective real time assessment of vehicle driveability and vehicle character, using a new subjective - objective approach.
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