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Technical Paper

Methodology and Tools to Predict GDI Injector Tip Wetting as Predecessor of Tip Sooting

2018-04-03
2018-01-0286
With upcoming emission regulations particle emissions for GDI engines are challenging engine and injector developers. Despite the introduction of GPFs, engine-out emission should be optimized to avoid extra cost and exhaust backpressure. Engine tests with a state of the art Miller GDI engine showed up to 200% increased particle emissions over the test duration due to injector deposit related diffusion flames. No spray altering deposits have been found inside the injector nozzle. To optimize this tip sooting behavior a tool chain is presented which involves injector multiphase simulations, a spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm model and testing. First the flow inside the injector is analyzed based on a 3D-XRay model. The next step is a Lagrangian spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm module which is used to simulate the fuel impingement on the injector tip and counter-bores.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulations of the Flow in Intake Port Geometries

2016-04-05
2016-01-0589
A computational study of the flow in intake port geometries has been performed. Three different intake port geometries, namely two combined tangential and helical ports and one quiescent port were analyzed. Each of these cases was calculated for different valve lifts and the results were compared with available measurements. The focus of this paper is on the performance assessment of the variable resolution Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method. Calculations have been also performed with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, which is presently a state-of-the-art approach for this application in the industry. Besides the averaged integral values like a discharge coefficient and a swirl coefficient, the predicted velocity magnitude fields at the measured cross sections of the ports are compared due to available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

Automated Model-Based Calibration for Drivability Using a Virtual Engine Test Cell

2015-04-14
2015-01-1628
Increasing powertrain complexity and the growing number of vehicle variants are putting a strain on current calibration development processes. This is particularly challenging for vehicle drivability calibration, which is traditionally completed late in the development cycle, only after mature vehicle hardware is available. Model-based calibration enables a shift in development tasks from the real world to the virtual world, allowing for increased system robustness while reducing development costs and time. A unique approach for drivability calibration was developed by incorporating drivability analysis software with online optimization software into a virtual engine test cell environment. Real-time, physics-based engine and vehicle simulation models were coupled with real engine controller hardware and software to execute automated drivability calibration within this environment.
Technical Paper

Integrated Toolchain for Powertrain Optimization for Indian Commercial Vehicles

2015-01-14
2015-26-0032
Best fuel efficiency is one of the core requirements for commercial vehicles in India. Consequently it is a central challenge for commercial vehicle OEMs to optimize the entire powertrain, hence match engine, transmission and rear axle specifications best to the defined application. The very specific real world driving conditions in India (e.g. traffic situations, road conditions, driver behavior, etc.) and the large number of possible commercial powertrain combinations request an efficient and effective development methodology. This paper presents a methodology and tool chain to specify and develop commercial powertrains in a most efficient and effective way. The methodology is based on the measurement of real world driving scenarios, identification of representative Real World Driving Profiles and vehicle system simulation which allows extended analysis of the road topography, the traffic situation as well as the driver behavior.
Journal Article

Compact Engine Architecture for Best Fuel Efficiency and High Performance - Challenge or Contradiction

2011-11-08
2011-32-0595
The world of automotive engineering shows a clear direction for upcoming development trends. Stringent fleet average fuel consumption targets and CO2 penalties as well as rising fuel prices and the consumer demand to lower operating costs increases the engineering efforts to optimize fuel economy. Passenger car engines have the benefit of higher degree of technology which can be utilized to reach the challenging targets. Variable valve timing, downsizing and turbo charging, direct gasoline injection, highly sophisticated operating strategies and even more electrification are already common technologies in the automotive industry but can not be directly carried over into a motorcycle application. The major differences like very small packaging space, higher rated speeds, higher power density in combination with lower production numbers and product costs do not allow implementation such high of degree of advanced technology into small-engine applications.
Technical Paper

Cylinder- and Cycle Resolved Particle Formation Evaluation to Support GDI Engine Development for Euro 6 Targets

2011-09-11
2011-24-0206
Combustion of premixed stoichiometric charge is free of soot particle formation. Consequently, the development of direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engines aims at providing premixed charge to avoid or minimize soot formation in order to meet particle emissions targets. Engine development methods not only need precise engine-out particle measurement instrumentation but also sensors and measurement techniques which enable identification of in-cylinder soot formation sources under all relevant engine test conditions. Such identification is made possible by recording flame radiation signals and with analysis of such signals for premixed and diffusion flame signatures. This paper presents measurement techniques and analysis methods under normal engine and vehicle test procedures to minimize sooting combustion modes in transient engine operation.
Journal Article

Application of the Wave Based Technique to Predict the Engine Noise Radiation Under Anechoic Conditions

2009-05-19
2009-01-2211
As an alternative to the element based methods, recently a wave based technique (WBT) has been developed. Since it is based on the indirect Trefftz approach, exact solutions of the governing differential equation are used to approximate the dynamic field variables. This paper discusses the extensions of the WBT for the analysis of engine noise radiation problems in 3 dimensions under anechoic conditions. Furthermore, necessary extensions of shape functions, numerical integration and a methodology to create a WBT radiation models are described. The performance of the method compared to a commercial BEM solution is demonstrated with a real engine example.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

OBD Algorithms: Model-based Development and Calibration

2007-10-30
2007-01-4222
The OBD II and EOBD legislation have significantly increased the number of system components that have to be monitored in order to avoid emissions degradation. Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of decreasing OBD thresholds, the monitoring strategy accuracy, which is tightly related with the components tolerances and the calibration quality, has to be improved. A model-based offline simulation of the monitoring strategies allows consideration of component and sensor tolerances as well as a first calibration optimization in the early development phase. AVL applied and improved a methodology that takes into account this information, which would require a big effort using testbed or vehicle measurements. In many cases a component influence analysis is possible before hardware is available for testbed measurements.
Technical Paper

The Application of a New Software Tool for Separating Engine Combustion and Mechanical Noise Excitation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2376
The optimization of engine NVH is still an important aspect for vehicle interior and exterior noise radiation. To optimize the engine noise / vibration contribution to the vehicle, a complete understanding of the excitation mechanism, the vibration transfer in the engine structure and the radiation efficiency of the individual engine components is required. Concerning the excitation within the engine, a very efficient analysis methodology for the combustion- and mechanical excitation within gasoline and diesel engines has been developed. Out of this methodology a software tool has been designed for a fast, efficient and detailed evaluation of the combustion- and mechanical excitation content of total engine noise. Recently this software tool has been successfully applied in engine NVH optimization work for defining the best optimization strategies for engine NVH reduction and noise quality improvement especially with respect to combustion excitation.
Technical Paper

Validation of Diesel Fuel Spray and Mixture Formation from Nozzle Internal Flow Calculation

2005-05-11
2005-01-2098
A series calculation methodology from the injector nozzle internal flow to the in-cylinder fuel spray and mixture formation in a diesel engine was developed. The present method was applied to a valve covered orifice (VCO) nozzle with the recent common rail injector system. The nozzle internal flow calculation using an Eulerian three-fluid model and a cavitation model was performed. The needle valve movement during the injection period was taken into account in this calculation. Inside the nozzle hole, cavitation appears at the nozzle hole inlet edge, and the cavitation region separates into two regions due to a secondary flow in the cross section, and it is distributed to the nozzle exit. Unsteady change of the secondary flow caused by needle movement affects the cavitation distribution in the nozzle hole, and the spread angle of the velocity vector at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Virtual Optimization of Vehicle and Powertrain Parameters with Consideration of Human Factors

2005-04-11
2005-01-1945
The rapidly growing complexity and the growing cross linking of powertrain components leads to longer development times, especially in the vehicle calibration process. The number of systems which need to be fitted to each other and the number of parameters to be calibrated in the particular systems are increasing tremendously. The extensive use of simulation promises to reduce the calibration effort by providing pre-optimized parameter sets. This paper describes a new simulation methodology by the interlinking of advanced vehicle simulation and evaluation tools, in particular the AVL-tools CRUISE, VSM and DRIVE. This methodology allows to semi automatically pre-optimize powertrain and vehicle parameters before hardware is involved. So far the pre-calibration of vehicle and powertrain parameters by simulation was not satisfying because of the missing of a reliable evaluation tool for the produced simulation results.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Simplification-Ways Towards Improved Fuel Economy

2002-03-04
2002-01-0236
A broad variety of new technologies for improving fuel economy is currently under development or investigation. The general statement is that always a compromise between fuel economy benefit and engine oncost has to be found. This paper describes a new way for improving fuel economy based on existing technologies used in a refined way. It is shown that with very simple and robust measures on the intake and exhaust ports and on the valve train mechanism 2 valve and 4 valve engines can show a significant improvement in fuel consumption without having a great cost penalty for production. The basic system consists of a single cam phaser and a special port arrangement on a 2 valve engine with a single camshaft operated at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio utilizing internal EGR and a reverse “Miller-Cycle”. Variable charge motion is generated using a shared flow through the intake and the exhaust port by varying cam timing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transient Drive Cycles using CRUISE-BOOST Co-Simulation Techniques

2002-03-04
2002-01-0627
In order to improve the accuracy of vehicle simulation under transient cycle conditions and thus predict performance and fuel consumption, consideration of the complete system engine/drivetrain/vehicle is necessary. The coupling of otherwise independent simulation programs is therefore necessary for the vehicle and engine. The description of thermally transient processes enables the calculation of the heat balance of the engine, which in turn enables the simulation of warming up operation. Through consideration of the engine warming up process, the quality of the prediction of fuel consumption and emissions is improved. The combination of the simulation programs CRUISE and BOOST to determine the engine heat balance has proven to be successful for the analysis of transient drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CO2 Emission Levels for Internal Combustion Engine and Fuel Cell Automotive Propulsion Systems

2001-11-12
2001-01-3751
The well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and energy use of internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) are compared to fuel cell automotive propulsion systems. The fuel cell technologies investigated are polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. The comparison is based on driving cycle simulations of a mid-class passenger car with an inertia test weight of 1350 kg. The study shows that the optimized diesel drive train (downsized mated to an integrated starter generator) achieves the best overall energy efficiency. The lowest CO2 emissions are produced by compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. Fuel cell propulsion systems achieve similar or even better CO2 emission values under hot start conditions but suffer from high energy input required during warm-up.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Warm-Up with Integration of Vehicle and Engine Cycle Simulation

2001-05-14
2001-01-1697
The incorporation of a detailed engine process calculation that takes into account thermal behavior of the engine and exhaust system is essential for a realistic simulation of transient vehicle operation. This is the only possible way to have a precise preliminary calculation of fuel consumption and emissions. Therefore, a comprehensive thermal network of the engine based on the lumped capacity method has been developed. The model allows the computation of component temperatures in steady state operation as well as in transient engine studies, e.g. investigations of engine warm-up. The model is integrated in a co-simulation environment consisting of a detailed vehicle and engine cycle simulation code. The paper describes the procedure of the co-simulation and presents several examples of warm-up simulations.
Technical Paper

Pass-By Noise Prediction for Trucks Based on Powertrain Test-Cell Measurements

2001-04-30
2001-01-1564
The paper outlines and discusses the possibilities of a new instrumentation tool for the analysis of engine and gearbox noise radiation and the prediction of pass-by noise from powertrain test cell measurements. Based on a 32 channel data acquisition board, the system is intended to be quick and easy to apply in order to support engineers during their daily work in the test cell. The pass-by prediction is a purely experimental approach with test cell recordings being weighted by measured transfer functions (from the powertrain compartment to the pass-by point).
Technical Paper

Simulation Aided Process for Developing Powertrains

2000-12-01
2000-01-3161
For the development of complex control algorithms and strategies the engine and powertrain test bed offers a number of advantages over the development in the prototype vehicle. The paper discusses how state-of-the-art simulation techniques can contribute to a continuous development process, which is based upon offline simulation using hardware in the loop, the utilization of modern test bed technology up to vehicle adjustment. The integration of hardware-in-the-loop testing together with vehicle and transmission simulation on the testbed allows to speed up the optimization of fuel consumption, emissions and driveability in an early stage in the development process. The available software tools are presented and application examples are given.
Technical Paper

Lightweight design~A challenge for modern passenger car engines

2000-06-12
2000-05-0051
The application of lightweight materials for new crankcase concepts implies comprehensive design considerations to achieve weight reductions as close as possible to the potential of the selected material. A specific approach for inline and V-engine crankcase concepts is discussed in detail. Engine weight reduction can also be achieved through "Downsizing." Modern technologies applied to existing engine concepts increase the power-weight ratio, the engine''s capability and therefore its marketing value. The use of lightweight materials for diesel and gasoline engines within one engine family allows a combined production and a less costly machining. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are, due to their high relative strength (tensional strength and e-modulus divided by their material densities), suitable for weight-reduced components which need to be designed for a specific target strength.
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