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Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Technical Paper

CAE Process for Developing Cylinder Head Design Including Statistical Correlation and Shape Optimization

Design of cylinder heads involves complex constraints that must satisfy thermal, strength, performance, and manufacturing requirements which present a great challenge for successful development. During development of a new highly loaded cylinder head, CAE methods predicted unacceptable fatigue safety factors for the initial prototype design. Hydropulsator component testing was undertaken and the results were correlated with the analysis predictions using a statistical method to calculate failure probability. Shape optimization was undertaken to improve high cycle fatigue safety in vulnerable regions of the cylinder head water jacket for the subsequent design release. The optimization process provided more efficient design guidance than previously discovered through a traditional iterative approach. Follow-on investigations examined other shape optimization software for fatigue improvement in the cylinder head.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Thermal Mechanical Fatigue Simulation of Cast iron Cylinder Heads

The requirement for increased power and reduced emission and fuel consumption levels for diesel engines has created very stringent demands on the cylinder head design. In current engine development programs it is often observed that the limiting design factor is given by the thermal mechanical fatigue strength of the cylinder head. Design iterations resulting from durability testing are often necessary due to the lack of adequate simulation techniques for prediction thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure. A complete lifetime simulation process is presented in this paper with emphasis on a newly developed material model for describing the constitutive behavior of cast iron (i.e. gray cast iron and compacted graphite iron) under thermal cycling. The material model formulation is based on a continuum-damage-mechanics (CDM) approach in order to account for the tension / compression anomaly of cast iron.
Technical Paper

Designing Single-Purpose or Multi-Purpose Engines for On-Road and Non-Road Use - A Platform Approach

The paper gives an overview of the partially extremely complex problem when looking into commonalities and differences of the three main application areas of engines and powertrains - automotive, agricultural tractors, and industrial engines, the last being predominantly but not exclusively focused on construction equipment. The modern “platform” approach has been used in the automotive world to a large extent and the learned experiences may be of interest for the agricultural tractors and/or the construction equipment manufacturers. On the other hand the truck engine engineers and manufacturers will learn more about the special requirements of the tractor and the industrial engines fields, and thus influence concepts and development procedures and also the production of the automotive engines which in many cases serve as the basis for derivate engines.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converters in a 1d Cycle Simulation Code Considering 3d Behavior

The objective of this study to introduce the newly developed Discrete Channel Method (DCM) as a fast and efficient method for the prediction of the 3d and transient behavior of honeycomb-type catalytic converters in automotive applications. The approach is based on the assumption that the regions between the channels are treated as a reactor with a homogeneously distributed heat source due to chemical conversion. Therefore, each radial direction can be described by a center, a boundary and only a few intermediate channels between them. The discrete channels are described by transient, 1d conservation equations that characterize the behavior of channels at different radial positions. The heat entering and leaving each discrete channel is evaluated by the gradients of the temperature field in conjunction with the heat conductivity of the substrate. The approach is validated by experimental data and serves as a module in the thermodynamic and engine analysis design tool BOOST.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Driveability

Vehicle driveability evolves more and more as a key decisive factor for marketability and competitiveness of passenger cars, since the final decision of customers to buy a car is usually taken after a more or less intensive test drive. Car manufacturers currently evaluate vehicle driveability with subjective assessments and by having their experienced test drivers fill out form sheets. These assessments are time and cost intensive, limited in repeatability and not objective. The real customer requirements cannot be recognized in detail with this method. This paper describes a completely new approach for an objective and real time evaluation of relevant driveability criteria, for use in a vehicle and on a high dynamic test bed. The vehicle application enables an objective comparison between vehicles and an application as a development tool in many development and calibration phases, where ever fast and objective driveability results are required.