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Technical Paper

Analytical Model for Calibration Results performances enhancement, resulting in automated prescription for equipments

2019-09-16
2019-01-1878
The current aeronautical manufacturing sector is characterized by the high level of competence and the required requirement in its production processes, based on the objectives of profitability and safety (airworthiness). In recent years, there is a real revolution in the sector, where the most advanced tools for the organization and optimization of production are given priority, supported by the latest massively used techniques of automatic data collection. , their organized storage and their analytical classification. Metrology plays a key role in ensuring the quality and reliability of the information generated in these productive cycles. The provision of an analytical model of flexible measurement systems, capable and easily adaptable to the dynamics of the company, is presented as one of the pillars in which this new conception of production is based.
Technical Paper

Simulation of aircraft assembly via ASRP software

2019-09-16
2019-01-1887
ASRP (Assembly Simulation of Riveting Process) software is a special tool for modelling assembly process for large scale airframe parts. On the base of variation simulation, ASRP provides a convenient way to analyze, verify and optimize the arrangement of temporary fasteners. During the airframe assembly process certain criteria on the residual gap between parts must be fulfilled. The numerical approach realized in ASRP allows one to evaluate the quality of contact on every stage of the assembly process and solve verification and optimization problems for temporary fastener patterns. The paper is devoted to description of several specialized approaches that combine statistical analysis of measured data and numerical simulation using high-performance computing for optimization of fastener patterns, calculation of forces in fasteners needed to close initial gaps and identification of hazardous areas in junction regions.
Technical Paper

Ranking of Thick Ice Shapes Based on Numerical Simulation for Certification

2019-06-10
2019-01-1944
The objective of this paper is to present a numerical method to rank thick ice shapes for aircraft by comparing the ice accretion effects for different icing scenarios in order to determine the more critical ice shape. This ranking allows limiting the demonstration of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft in iced condition during certification to a reduced number of ice shapes. The usage of this numerical method gives more flexibility to the determination of the critical ice shapes, as it is not dependent of the availability of physical test vehicles and/or facilities. The simulation strategy is built on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and is validated based on a representative test case, both in terms of aircraft geometry and ice shapes. Validation against existing experimental results shows the method exhibits an adequate level of reliability for the ranking of thick ice shapes.
Technical Paper

How Tools and Process Improved Diagnostic and Prognostic Reaction Time

2015-09-15
2015-01-2589
Modern aircraft, such as A380 or A350 for Airbus, are very well connected in flight to ground stations through wireless communications. For maintenance and operations purpose, the aircraft is programmed to send regularly information such as flight reports based on the BITE messages (Built-In Test Equipment) or standard reports based on the value of physical parameters. Moreover, Airbus is capable of sending requests (called uplinks) to the aircraft to retrieve the value of different parameters in almost real-time. This ability, associated with adequate process, improves significantly the reaction time of the diagnostic and prognostic solutions that Airbus can provide to its customers. Traditionally Health Monitoring is considered useful when the Potential to Functional failure (P-F) interval is greater than one flight cycle.
Technical Paper

HAIC/HIWC Field Campaign - Specific Findings on PSD Microphysics in High IWC Regions from In Situ Measurements: Median Mass Diameters, Particle Size Distribution Characteristics and Ice Crystal Shapes

2015-06-15
2015-01-2087
Despite past research programs focusing on tropical convection, the explicit studies of high ice water content (IWC) regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) are rare, although high IWC conditions are potentially encountered by commercial aircraft during multiple in-service engine powerloss and airdata probe events. To gather quantitative data in high IWC regions, a multi-year international HAIC/HIWC (High Altitude Ice Crystals / High Ice Water Content) field project has been designed including a first field campaign conducted out of Darwin (Australia) in 2014. The airborne instrumentation included a new reference bulk water content measurement probe and optical array probes (OAP) recording 2D images of encountered ice crystals. The study herein focuses on ice crystal size properties in high IWC regions, analyzing in detail the 2D image data from the particle measuring probes.
Technical Paper

A350XWB Icing Certification Overview

2015-06-15
2015-01-2111
The intent of this paper is to provide a general overview of the main engineering and test activities conducted in order to support A350XWB Ice and Rain Protection Systems certification. Several means of compliance have been used to demonstrate compliance with applicable Certification Basis (CS 25 at Amendment 8 + CS 25.795 at Amendment 9, FAR 25 up to Amendment 129) and Environmental protection requirements. The EASA Type Certificate for the A350XWB was received the 30th September 2014 after 7 years of development and verification that the design performs as required, with five A350XWB test aircraft accumulating more than 2600 flight test hours and over 600 flights. The flight tests were performed in dry air and measured natural icing conditions to demonstrate the performance of all ice and rain protection systems and to support the compliance demonstration with CS 25.1419 and CS25.21g.
Technical Paper

The Use of RDT Nowcasting Tool for Detecting Convective Areas Associated with High Ice Water Content during HAIC/HIWC Field Campaign

2015-06-15
2015-01-2124
Glaciated icing conditions potentially leading to in-service event are often encountered in the vicinity of deep convective clouds. Nowcasting of these conditions with space-borne observations would be of a great help for improving flight safety and air-traffic management but still remains challenging. In the framework of the HAIC (High Altitude Ice Crystals) project, methods to detect and track regions of high ice water content from space-based geostationary and low orbit mission are investigated. A first HAIC/HIWC field campaign has been carried out in Australia in January-March 2014 to sample meteorological conditions potentially leading to glaciated icing conditions. During the campaign, several nowcasting tools were successfully operated such as the Rapid Development Thunderstorm (RDT) product that detects the convective areas from infrared geostationary imagery.
Technical Paper

Improvements of the PLANET System for Real-Time Satellite Data Transmission During the HAIC-HIWC Darwin Field Campaign

2015-06-15
2015-01-2147
The PLANET System was used for real-time satellite data transmission during the HAIC-HIWC Darwin field campaign (January to March 2014). The basic system was initially providing aircraft tracking, chat, weather text messages (METAR, TAF, etc.), and aeronautical information (NOTAMs) in a standalone application. In the framework of the HAIC project, many improvements were made in order to fulfill requirements of the onboard and ground science teams for the field campaign. The aim of this paper is to present the main improvements of the system that were implemented for the Darwin field campaign. New features of the system are related to the hardware component, the communication protocol, weather and tracking display, geomarkers on the map, and image processing and compression before onboard transfer.
Technical Paper

Application of EASA Part 21 Requirement Regarding Change to Aircraft Type Design by Airbus

2013-09-17
2013-01-2124
Airbus business and Extended Enterprise require more and more involvement of design and built suppliers, tier 1 but also across the complete supply chain i.e. tier 2-n. These suppliers are not working only for Aerospace industry and may have different cultures. The pressure on cost and overall efficiency is high and everybody has to cope with obsolescence and new regulation (e.g. REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals)). So it became very important for Airbus to clarify the criteria under which a change can be done without Airbus review, and criteria under which a change can be done without Airworthiness authority review.
Video

Orbital Drilling Machine for One Way Assembly in Hard Materials

2012-03-23
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Model of Water Contamination in Aircraft Fuel Tanks

2011-10-18
2011-01-2540
Water is a contaminant that can lead to fuel system icing, microbial contamination, corrosion and fuel quantity gauging problems and therefore an efficient water management system is required in order to maximise the performance of an aircraft's fuel system. This paper describes a time-transient aircraft fuel tank model with water contamination, due to the principal mechanisms of dissolution, suspension, condensation and transportation. The tank model presented is a component of the NEPTUNE fuel system model which was developed for Airbus using the A380 as an example aircraft. A description of the physics of water contaminated fuel is given and of how this has been incorporated into a mathematical model of an aircraft fuel tank. A modular approach is demonstrated which enables interconnecting fuel tanks to be configured in larger systems in a flexible and easily understood manner.
Technical Paper

Engine Control, An Aircraft Atypical Computer: How to Set the Standard?

2011-10-18
2011-01-2543
Four years ago Airbus became actively involved in the SAE E36, Electronic Engine Control committee. This paper presents an Airframe Manufacturer view of one current working practices discussion relative to the FADEC electrical hardware change and describes an Airframe Manufacturer views on the committee's effectiveness along with a vision for its future. The SAE E36 committee is a representation of the propulsion control engineering community. The members comes from Airworthiness Authorities and other government and military agencies, airframers, engine manufacturers and control suppliers from North America, South America and Europe (including Russia). An active involvement allows an aircraft manufacturer to participate actively in the process and “to set the standard”. An additional benefit is to be aware of “what's hot”.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Hypervisors for Security-Enhanced Avionics Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2805
Traditionally, software in avionics has been totally separated from open-world software, in order to avoid any interaction that could corrupt critical on-board systems. However, new aircraft generations need more interaction with off-board systems to offer extended services, which makes these information flows potentially dangerous. In a previous work, we have proposed the use of virtualization to ensure dependability of critical applications despite bidirectional communication between critical on-board systems and untrusted off-board systems. We have developed a test bed to assess the performance impact induced by the use of virtualization. In this work, various configurations have been experimented that range from a basic machine without an OS up to the complete architecture featuring a hypervisor and an OS running in a virtual machine. Several tests (computation, memory, network) are carried out, and timing measures are collected on different hypervisors.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diagnosis for Sustainable Flight Guidance and Control: The European ADDSAFE Project

2011-10-18
2011-01-2804
The state-of-practice for aircraft manufacturers to diagnose guidance & control faults and obtain full flight envelope protection at all times is to provide high levels of dissimilar hardware redundancy. This ensures sufficient available control action and allows performing coherency tests, cross and consistency checks, voting mechanisms and built-in test techniques of varying sophistication. This hardware-redundancy based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) approach is nowadays the standard industrial practice and fits also into current aircraft certification processes while ensuring the highest level of safety standards. In the context of future “sustainable” aircraft (More Affordable, Smarter, Cleaner and Quieter), the Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) design objectives, originating from structural loads design constraints, are becoming more and more stringent.
Technical Paper

Flight Parameter Estimation for Augmented Flight Control System Autonomy

2011-10-18
2011-01-2801
In the framework of the aircraft global optimization, for future and upcoming programs, current research interests include more Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) autonomy for a more easy-to-handle aircraft. A possible solution is to increase the number of redundant flight parameter sensors but to the detriment of the aircraft weight and so to the cost and performances. This paper proposes an algorithm using PLS (Partial Least Squares) to estimate a flight parameter from independent sensor measurements. The estimates are then used as so-called “software” or “virtual” sensors, allowing aircraft weight saving. This algorithm is based on an iterative processing and thus can be used in real time in the embedded flight control computer. Furthermore, the resulting flight parameter estimates can be used to detect failures. Different detection strategies are proposed and results show that this method can lead to robust detections.
Technical Paper

Future Potentials on Hydraulic Power Generation Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2796
In the past decades hydraulic systems have dominated actuation tasks in aerospace applications. Even today hydraulic actuation remains in first line for primary flight controls as well as for heavy consumers such as landing gear or auxiliary applications in the perimeter of military functions. Also in future, hydraulic systems and its consumers are candidates to fulfil operational and functional requirements and provide respective improvements to ensure product competitiveness. Thus, this paper deals with potential improvements on hydraulic system level such as, fluid monitoring and light weight applications linked to impacts on aircraft level or interfacing systems.
Technical Paper

Software Complex for Riveting Process Simulation

2011-10-18
2011-01-2772
The presented paper describes the software complex developed in St. Petersburg Polytechnical University for AIRBUS aimed at simulation of aircraft assembly process. Previous version of this complex was described in [1].
Technical Paper

Flight Test Identification Methods for Loads Models and Applications

2011-10-18
2011-01-2763
The Loads discipline contributes to the aircraft structural design by delivering shear, moment and torque (SMT, loads) all across the airframe resulting from application of aircraft airworthiness requirements as laid down in the CS 25/FAR 25 regulations and in some domestic ones. Loads computation considers the maneuver and gust conditions prescribed therein as well as other special design conditions. It is based on very detailed modeling, accounting for aerodynamics in all configurations, mass properties, flexibility of the airframe, flight control laws and retarded laws, hydraulic actuation, and specification of flight control system failure conditions. The resulting shear loads are processed and refined (e.g. nodal loads) and taken into account by the stress department for structural design.
Technical Paper

Longitudinal Handling Qualities of Conventional and Unconventional Aircraft Configurations

2011-10-18
2011-01-2762
During the conceptual design phase, the aircraft stability and control derivatives (aerodynamic coefficients) can be estimated by using fast computational means. Aerodynamic potential codes like the Vortex Lattice Method (VLM) or the Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) are very easy to use and are capable of estimating these coefficients accurately as well as providing remarkable insight into wing aerodynamics and components interaction. Compared to the VLM, the DLM (originally used for aeroelastic computations) allows prediction of the steady as well as unsteady stability and control derivatives. The relationships involving these coefficients and the airplane's dynamic behaviour are well known, like for example the one relating the pitch damping derivative and the damping ratio of the Short Period mode.
Technical Paper

Considerations on an Integral Flight Physics Model with Application to Loads Analysis

2011-10-18
2011-01-2767
Increasing technical dependencies between the engineering disciplines driving the overall design of an aircraft and improving optimization techniques that make use of these interactions blur the lines between distinct disciplines and create demand for a harmonized flight physics model. In this paper we present considerations on a general framework that allows the representation of the equations and data from various domains in an object-oriented and scalable structure. Emphasis is put on the loads aspect with the distinct fields of gust loads, maneuver loads and ground loads analysis, which are essential for structural design. A fully generic, grid based data structure is presented, which is suitable for models of different granularity and applicability. All data is represented in this general form independent of its origin and may be transformed in between the different representations using splines. Coordinate transformations are handled automatically.
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