Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Analytical Model for Calibration Results performances enhancement, resulting in automated prescription for equipments

2019-09-16
2019-01-1878
The current aeronautical manufacturing sector is characterized by the high level of competence and the required requirement in its production processes, based on the objectives of profitability and safety (airworthiness). In recent years, there is a real revolution in the sector, where the most advanced tools for the organization and optimization of production are given priority, supported by the latest massively used techniques of automatic data collection. , their organized storage and their analytical classification. Metrology plays a key role in ensuring the quality and reliability of the information generated in these productive cycles. The provision of an analytical model of flexible measurement systems, capable and easily adaptable to the dynamics of the company, is presented as one of the pillars in which this new conception of production is based.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

2019-06-10
2019-01-1983
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step.
Technical Paper

Extension of a 2D Algorithm for Catch Efficiency Calculation to Three Dimensions

2019-06-10
2019-01-2013
Accurate calculation of the catch efficiency β is of paramount importance for any ice accretion calculation since β is the most important factor in determining the mass of ice accretion. A new scheme has been proposed recently in [1] for accurately calculating β on a discretized two-dimensional geometry based on the results of a Lagrangian droplet trajectory integrator (start and impact conditions). This paper proposes an extension to the algorithm in Ref. [1], which is applicable to three-dimensional surfaces with arbitrary surface discretization. The 3D algorithm maintains the positive attributes of the original 2D algorithm, namely mass conservation of the impinging water, capability to deal with overlapping impingement regions and with crossing trajectories, computational efficiency of the algorithm, and low number of trajectories required to reach good accuracy in catch efficiency.
Technical Paper

A350XWB Icing Certification Overview

2015-06-15
2015-01-2111
The intent of this paper is to provide a general overview of the main engineering and test activities conducted in order to support A350XWB Ice and Rain Protection Systems certification. Several means of compliance have been used to demonstrate compliance with applicable Certification Basis (CS 25 at Amendment 8 + CS 25.795 at Amendment 9, FAR 25 up to Amendment 129) and Environmental protection requirements. The EASA Type Certificate for the A350XWB was received the 30th September 2014 after 7 years of development and verification that the design performs as required, with five A350XWB test aircraft accumulating more than 2600 flight test hours and over 600 flights. The flight tests were performed in dry air and measured natural icing conditions to demonstrate the performance of all ice and rain protection systems and to support the compliance demonstration with CS 25.1419 and CS25.21g.
Technical Paper

Overview of the HAIC “Space-borne Observation and Nowcasting of High Ice Water Content Regions” Sub-Project and Mid-Term Results

2015-06-15
2015-01-2123
The High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) Sub-Project 3 (SP3) focuses on the detection of cloud regions with high ice water content (IWC) from current available remote sensing observations of space-based geostationary and low-orbit missions. The SP3 activities are aimed at supporting operationally the two up-coming HAIC flight campaigns (the first one in May 2015 in Cayenne, French Guyana; the second one in January 2016 in Darwin, Australia) and ultimately provide near real-time cloud monitoring to Air Traffic Management. More in detail the SP3 activities focus on the detection of high IWC from space-borne geostationary Meteosat daytime imagery, explore the synergy of concurrent multi-spectral multiple-technique observations from the low-orbit A-Train mission to identify specific signatures in high IWC cloud regions, and finally develop a satellite-based nowcasting tool to track and monitor convective systems over the Tropical Atlantic.
Technical Paper

Application of EASA Part 21 Requirement Regarding Change to Aircraft Type Design by Airbus

2013-09-17
2013-01-2124
Airbus business and Extended Enterprise require more and more involvement of design and built suppliers, tier 1 but also across the complete supply chain i.e. tier 2-n. These suppliers are not working only for Aerospace industry and may have different cultures. The pressure on cost and overall efficiency is high and everybody has to cope with obsolescence and new regulation (e.g. REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals)). So it became very important for Airbus to clarify the criteria under which a change can be done without Airbus review, and criteria under which a change can be done without Airworthiness authority review.
Technical Paper

Extended Non-Destructive Testing of Composite Bonds

2011-10-18
2011-01-2514
Composite materials are increasingly being used in the manufacturing of structural components in aeronautics industry. A consequent light-weight design of CFRP primary structures requires adhesive bonding as the optimum joining technique but is limited due to a lack of adequate quality assurance procedures. The successful implementation of a reliable quality assurance concept for adhesive bonding within manufacturing and in-service environments will provide the basis for increased use of lightweight composite materials for highly integrated aircraft structures thus minimizing rivet-based assembly. The expected weight saving for the fuselage airframe is remarkable and therefore the driver for research and development of key-enabling technologies. The performance of adhesive bonds mainly depends on the physico-chemical properties of adherend surfaces.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of SAE Total Pressure Intake Distortion Descriptors to Pressure Fluctuations at the Engine-Intake Interface Plane

2011-10-18
2011-01-2544
A methodology to evaluate the sensitivity of total pressure intake distortion descriptors defined by SAE ARP 1420 to individual pressure fluctuations in the Aerodynamic Interface Plane -AIP- has been developed. Individual pressure fluctuations were simulated as a white noise using a random number generator with a Gaussian distribution of known standard deviation. Monte Carlo experiments were performed perturbing different steady total pressure patterns on the AIP with random signals of different RMS values. Instantaneous distortion descriptors were calculated and statistically characterized. General correlations were obtained applying maximum value statistics to relate the maximum expected distortion increment to the RMS of the individual pressure fluctuations, the mean total pressure on the AIP and the number of samples.
Technical Paper

Engine Control, An Aircraft Atypical Computer: How to Set the Standard?

2011-10-18
2011-01-2543
Four years ago Airbus became actively involved in the SAE E36, Electronic Engine Control committee. This paper presents an Airframe Manufacturer view of one current working practices discussion relative to the FADEC electrical hardware change and describes an Airframe Manufacturer views on the committee's effectiveness along with a vision for its future. The SAE E36 committee is a representation of the propulsion control engineering community. The members comes from Airworthiness Authorities and other government and military agencies, airframers, engine manufacturers and control suppliers from North America, South America and Europe (including Russia). An active involvement allows an aircraft manufacturer to participate actively in the process and “to set the standard”. An additional benefit is to be aware of “what's hot”.
Technical Paper

On the Synthesis and Validation of Safety Assessment Models

2011-10-18
2011-01-2549
Safety is one of the most important aspects of which we are concerned with in the field of aerospace-systems development. There are a variety of safety assessment activities that are performed throughout a system's lifecycle. Multiple interrelated safety analysis artifacts are generated from the process. However, requirements and guidance for the synthesis and validation of the results of this analysis are insufficient and are not explicit. In traditional system development processes, certification coordination, safety assessment, requirements validation, and implementation verification are generally treated as supporting processes, which are concurrent and interactively dependent throughout the iterative development of a system. In SAE ARP4754A, these processes are stressed as integral processes with traceability between safety requirements and the dependencies between safety assessment activities highlighted as an important concern.
Technical Paper

Software Complex for Riveting Process Simulation

2011-10-18
2011-01-2772
The presented paper describes the software complex developed in St. Petersburg Polytechnical University for AIRBUS aimed at simulation of aircraft assembly process. Previous version of this complex was described in [1].
Technical Paper

Virtual Testing for High Lift Systems

2011-10-18
2011-01-2754
Improving the verification and certification process of the high lift system by introduction of virtual testing is one of the approaches to counter the challenges related to testing of future aircraft, in terms of performing more tests of more complex systems in less time. The quality of the applied modelling methods itself and the guarantee of a completely traceable simulation lifecycle management along the aircraft development are essential. The presentation shows how existing processes for the management of all test related data have to be extended to cover the specifics of using multi body simulation models for virtual tests related to high lift failure cases. Based on a demonstrator, MSC Software GmbH and Airbus developed and are still refining the SimManager based “High Lift System Virtual Test Portal”. This portal has to fulfil on the one side global requirements like data management, data traceability and workflow management.
Technical Paper

Innovation Readiness: Past and Current Drivers in Aeronautical Engineering

2011-10-18
2011-01-2501
This paper proposes a rearview on aeronautical innovation, addresses some 2000-2010 new products, and suggests elements of future vision, serving passengers aspirations. Over 100 years, aeronautics brilliantly domesticated flight: feasibility, safety, efficiency, international travel, traffic volume and noise, allowing airlines to run a business, really connecting real people. Despite some maturations, new developments should extend the notion of passenger service. So far, turbofans became silent and widebodies opened ‘air-bus’ travel for widespread business, tourism or education. Today airports symbolize cities and vitalize regional economies. 2000-2010 saw the full double-decker, the new eco-friendly freighter and electronic ticketing. In technology, new winglets and neo classical engines soon will save short-range blockfuel. In systems and maintenance, integrated modular avionics and onboard data systems give new flexibility, incl by data links to ground.
Technical Paper

Eco-efficient Materials for Aircraft Application

2011-10-18
2011-01-2742
Due to the importance of fulfilling the actual and upcoming environmental legislation, it is an Airbus main target to develop eco-efficient materials. Under consideration of the economical effects, these processes will be implemented into the production line. This paper gives an overview of Airbus and its partners research work, the results obtained within the frame of the European funded, integrated technology demonstrator (ITD) ECO Design for Airframe. This ITD is part of the joint technology initiative Clean Sky. Developments with different grade of maturity from “upstream” as the investigation of materials from renewable recourses up to materials now in use in production as low volatile organic compounds cleaner are under investigation. As a basis for future eco-efficient developments an approach for a quantitative life cycle assessment will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

EMA Aileron COVADIS Development

2011-10-18
2011-01-2729
In the frame of the COVADIS project (flight control with distributed intelligence and systems integration) supported by the DPAC and where Airbus and Sagem are partners, an electromechanical actuator (EMA) developed and produced by Sagem (SAFRAN group) flew for the first time in January 2011 as an aileron primary flight control of the Airbus A320 flight test Aircraft. With this new type of actuator, in the scope of the preparation of the future Airbus Aircraft, the perspectives of using EMA technologies for the flight control systems is an important potential enabler in the more electrical aircraft. The paper deals with the development phase of this actuator from the definition phase up to the flight tests campaign. It is focused on : COVADIS project context (flight control with distributed intelligence and systems integration), The challenges of the definition phase, Test results presentation (ground and flight).
Technical Paper

IT Security Management of Aircraft in Operation: A Manufacturer's View

2011-10-18
2011-01-2717
Over the last few years, IT systems have quickly found their way onboard aircrafts, driven by the continuous pursuit of improved safety and efficiency in aircraft operation, but also in an attempt to provide the ultimate in-flight experience for passengers. Along with IT systems and communication links came IT security as a new factor in the equation when evaluating and monitoring the operational risk that needs to be managed during the operation of the aircraft. This is mainly due to the fact that security deficiencies can cause services to be unavailable, or even worse, to be exploited by intentional attacks or inadvertent actions. Aircraft manufacturers needed to develop new processes and had to get organized accordingly in order to efficiently and effectively address these new risks.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Temperature Power Module Technology with SiC Devices for High Density Power Electronics

2011-10-18
2011-01-2620
This paper presents the development of a high density packaging technology for wide band gap power devices, such as silicon carbide (SiC). These devices are interesting candidates for the next aircraft power electronic converters. Effectively they achieve high switching frequencies thanks to the low losses level. High switching frequencies lead to reduce the passive components size and to an overall weight reduction of power converters. Moreover, SiC devices may enable operation at junction temperatures around 250°C. The cooling requirement is much less stringent than for usual Si devices. This might considerably simplify the cooling system, and reduce the overall weight. To achieve the integration requirements for SiC devices, classical wire bonding interconnection is replaced by a stacked packaging using bump interconnection technologies, called sandwich. These technologies offer two thermal paths to drain heat out and present more power integration possibilities.
Technical Paper

Applying a Concept for Robot-Human Cooperation to Aerospace Equipping Processes

2011-10-18
2011-01-2655
Significant effort has been applied to the introduction of automation for the structural assembly of aircraft. However, the equipping of the aircraft with internal services such as hydraulics, fuel, bleed-air and electrics and the attachment of movables such as ailerons and flaps remains almost exclusively manual and little research has been directed towards it. The problem is that the process requires lengthy assembly methods and there are many complex tasks which require high levels of dexterity and judgement from human operators. The parts used are prone to tolerance stack-ups, the tolerance for mating parts is extremely tight (sub-millimetre) and access is very poor. All of these make the application of conventional automation almost impossible. A possible solution is flexible metrology assisted collaborative assembly. This aims to optimise the assembly processes by using a robot to position the parts whilst an operator performs the fixing process.
Journal Article

Application of Model Based Functional Specification Methods to Environmental Control Systems Engineering

2011-10-18
2011-01-2504
The paper presents an innovative approach for the functional specification of complex and highly integrated aircraft control systems, such as the Environmental Control System (ECS), by applying model based specification methods. Complexity and effectiveness of modern ECS have significantly increased during the last few years along with development of new technologies and innovations in control engineering as well as digital data distribution and processing. Efficient management of cabin air flows on the one hand makes the ECS more energy-saving and on the other hand more complex with regard to its functionality and interaction with other interfaced aircraft systems. Numerous data interfaces to other systems and a high degree of automation are typical for a modern ECS. The aircraft manufacturer specifies the entire ECS functions and its interactions within the aircraft.
Journal Article

Qualification and Full-Scale Test of the Airbus A400M Barrier Net

2011-10-18
2011-01-2519
AmSafe®, Airbus and IABG were the first in decades to undertake an ultimate forward load Full-Scale Test (FST) of a 9 g₁ Barrier Net. Barrier Nets are safety-critical products used during an emergency landing (FAR25.561/CS25.561) to protect passengers and crew. When Airbus Military required an A400M Barrier Net they identified requirements well beyond the "normal" and demanded that payloads from a rigid structure to a frangible be restrained. AmSafe uses non-liner Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technology to analyze their nets and proposed an innovative solution for a new Barrier Net to satisfy these very demanding requirements. Given these new requirements, it was decided to also carry out a Full-Scale Test (FST). This test required the expertise of IABG, a testing facility based in Germany.
X