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Technical Paper

Columbus to Human Research Facility Hydraulic Compatibility Test: Analysis and Results

ESA and NASA agencies agreed to run an interface compatibility test at the EADS facility between the Columbus flight module and a duplicate ground unit of a currently on-orbit US International Standard Payload Rack, the Human Research Facility (HRF) Flight Prototype Rack (FPR). The purpose of the test was to demonstrate the capability to run US payloads inside the European ISS module Columbus. One of the critical aspects to be verified to ensure suitable operations of the two systems was the combined performance of the hydraulic controls resident in the HRF and Columbus coolant loops. A hydraulic model of the HRF FPR was developed and combined with the Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) model. Several coupled thermal-hydraulic test cases were then performed, preceded by mathematical analysis, required to predict safe test conditions and to optimize the Columbus valve configurations.
Technical Paper

A Tool for Flexible and Rapid Thermal Analysis and Design in Feasibility and Preliminary Phases of Space Projects

Feasibility and preliminary phases of space projects are aimed to answer to the very fundamental question whether a spacecraft (S/C) exists that can fulfil the mission objectives. In particular the thermal engineers must assess whether a possible configuration is feasible from the thermal point of view, or what modifications could make it suitable. The paper presents the Thermal Concept Design Tool (TCDT), a new software tool under development at Blue Engineering and Alenia Spazio for the European Space Agency (ESA), designed with the objective to assist the thermal engineers in reducing at minimum the effort required by simulation activities and focusing mainly on conceptual activities during feasibility and preliminary studies.
Technical Paper

Integral: 2.5 Y ears on Orbit - Thermal P erformance and Lesson Learnt

The INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) program is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, It was successfully launched on the 17th of October 2002 with a Proton launcher from Baikonour Cosmodrome and after a dedicated Commissioning Phase it was ready to start its scientific mission. After 2 years the first lifetime goal (nominal lifetime) was reached and it entered the extended lifetime (3 additional years) Alenia Spazio, who had the role of Prime Contractor, was fully responsible of the Thermal Control of the satellite. During 2.5 years the satellite was carefully monitored and the thermal control design mounted on it has been capable to meet all the thermal requirements, providing the optimal thermal environment.
Technical Paper

ATV Thermal Control System

The Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) Thermal Control System (TCS) has the task to ensure the required internal environment at level of pressurized module and to thermally control the not pressurised modules and installed equipment, using passive and active control means, in response to the relevant applicable requirements. The ATV vehicle is assially subdivided into three main modules: the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC), the Equipped Avionics Bay (EAB) and the Equipped Propulsion Bay (EPB). Each of these modules present elaborated and specific thermal design solutions, to satisfy the different required operative tasks. The extensive thermal analysis campaign performed at ATV vehicle level and in progress for the next Qualification Review (QR) to justify and support the thermal control design solutions and verification status is described.
Technical Paper

ALTAN, a New Tool for Spacecraft Thermal Simulation

ALTAN (ALenia Thermal ANalyser) is a tool developed in Alenia Spazio, for the thermal simulation of satellites. Distinctive features of ALTAN are the description of the system in terms of thermal objects that can be considered as high level primitives, the accurate modelling of the energy sources (planets and sun) and of the optical properties, the integration in a single tool of the steps of radiative, conductive and thermal calculations and of the post-process of the results. An example of ALTAN application is given for Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury, in particular the modelling of the highly variable planet temperature and the directional optical properties of the planet surface.
Technical Paper

An Overview of the Thermal Verification & Flight Data of Integral and Artemis Satellites

The INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) program is an ESA observatory scientific satellite to be used for gamma ray astronomy, while ARTEMIS (Advanced Data Relay and Technology Mission) is an ESA program to be used for data relay and technology demonstration. ARTEMIS was launched on the 12th of July 2001 with an Ariane V launcher from CSG, after successful completion of the System Environmental test campaign at ESTEC including Solar Simulation Thermal Balance tests on PFM (1998). INTEGRAL has been successfully launched on the 17th of October 2002 with a Proton launcher from Baikonour Cosmodrome, after completion of the System Environmental test campaign at ESTEC including Solar Simulation Thermal Balance tests on STM (1998) and PFM (2002).
Technical Paper

ANNIE, a Tool for Integrating Ergonomics in the Design of Car Interiors

In the ANNIE project - Applications of Neural Networks to Integrated Ergonomics - BE96-3433, a tool for integrating ergonomics into the design process is developed. This paper presents some features in the current ANNIE as applied to the design of car interiors. A variant of the ERGOMan mannequin with vision is controlled by a hybrid system for neuro-fuzzy simulation. It is trained by using an Elite system for registration of movements. An example of a trajectory generated by the system is shown. A fuzzy model is used for comfort evaluation. An experiment was performed to test its feasibility and it showed very promising results.
Technical Paper

Review of Italsat Thermal Performances Throughout the First Eighteen Months of Operational Life

Italsat F1 is a communication satellite sponsored by the Italian Space Agency and developed by Alenia Spazio. The spacecraft consists with a platform, which provides all the required services, and three payloads: a global beam package, a multibeam package for domestic communication services at 20/30 GHz, and an experimental propagation package at 40/50 GHz which embraces the European continent. Italsat F1 was sent off by an Ariane IV launcher from the Kourou Space Center in French Guyana on January 16th,1991, and it has been operating since February 1991. Having gone through a complete cycle of solstices and equinoxes, Italsat experienced the extreme environmental conditions at its beginning of life. The flight data collected throughout the first year of operational life enabled a review of the spacecraft thermal performances. This paper presents an overview of in-orbit observed temperatures.