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Technical Paper

Detailed Analysis of U.S. Department of Energy Engine Targets Compared To Existing Engine Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0835
The U.S. Department of Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office (U.S. DOE-VTO) has been developing more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that would enable the United States to burn less petroleum on the road. System simulation is an accepted approach to evaluate the fuel economy potential of advanced (future) technology targets. U.S. DOE-VTO defines the targets for advancement in powertrain technologies (e.g., engine efficiency targets, battery energy density, lightweighting, etc.) Vehicle system simulation models based on these targets have been generated in Autonomie, to reflect the different EPA classifications of vehicles for different advanced timeframes as part of DOE Benefits and Scenario Analysis (BaSce). It is also important to evaluate the progress of these component technical targets compared to existing technologies available in the market.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain Choices for Emerging Engine Technologies

2020-04-14
2020-01-0440
US department of energy estimates the peak efficiency of a modern spark ignited naturally aspirated Otto cycle engine to be 36%. Atkinson cycle engines are estimated to get 40% peak efficiency. Most engines can achieve this peak efficiency only for a limited operating region. Hybrid powertrains enable engine to operate in this efficiently. Overall efficiency is improved by shutting down engine during idle events and by adjusting the operating speed and load on the engine using electric machines. The choice of the powertrain and component sizes depends on the engine characteristics, drive cycles and vehicle technical requirements. This study examines what type of powertrains will be suitable for more efficient engines that are likely to be available in the near future. Some of these technologies achieve higher efficiency with a trade off on power or by accepting a more restrictive operating region.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Performance Benefits of Electrified Powertrains for Transit Buses

2018-04-03
2018-01-0321
This study presents a process to quantify the fuel saving potential of electrified powertrains for medium and heavy duty vehicles. For this study, equivalent vehicles with electrified powertrains are designed with the underlying principle of not compromising on cargo carrying capacity or performance. Several performance characteristics, that are relevant for all types of medium and heavy duty vehicles, were identified for benchmarking based on the feedback from the industry. Start-stop hybrids, parallel pre-transmission hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and battery electric vehicles are the technology choices in this study. This paper uses one vehicle as an example, explains the component sizing process followed for each powertrain, and examines each powertrain’s fuel saving potential. The process put forth in this paper can be used for evaluating vehicles that belong to all medium and heavy duty classes.
Journal Article

Automated Model Initialization Using Test Data

2017-03-28
2017-01-1144
Building a vehicle model with sufficient accuracy for fuel economy analysis is a time-consuming process, even with the modern-day simulation tools. Obtaining the right kind of data for modeling a vehicle can itself be challenging, given that while OEMs advertise the power and torque capability of their engines, the efficiency data for the components or the control algorithms are not usually made available for independent verification. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds the testing of vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory, and the test data are publicly available. Argonne is also the premier DOE laboratory for the modeling and simulation of vehicles. By combining the resources and expertise with available data, a process has been created to automatically develop a model for any conventional vehicle that is tested at Argonne. This paper explains the process of analyzing the publicly available test data and computing the parameters of various components from the analysis.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Powertrain Energy Densities of Electric and Gasoline Vehicles)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0903
The energy density and power density comparison of conventional fuels and batteries is often mentioned as an advantage of conventional vehicles over electric vehicles. Such an analysis often shows that the batteries are at least an order of magnitude behind fuels like gasoline. However this incomplete analysis ignores the impact of powertrain efficiency and mass of the powertrain itself. When we compare the potential of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) as an alternative for conventional vehicles, it is important to include the energy in the fuel and their storage as well as the eventual conversion to mechanical energy. For instance, useful work expected out of a conventional vehicle as well as a BEV is the same (to drive 300 miles with a payload of about 300 lb). However, the test weight of a Conventional vehicle and BEV will differ on the basis of what is needed to convert their respective stored energy to mechanical energy.
Technical Paper

Potential Cost Savings of Combining Power and Energy Batteries in a BEV 300

2016-04-05
2016-01-1213
Present-day battery technologies support a battery electric vehicle with a 300mile range (BEV 300), but the cost of such a vehicle hinders its large-scale adoption by consumers. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set aggressive cost targets for battery technologies. At present, no single technology meets the cost, energy, and power requirements of a BEV 300, but a combination of multiple batteries with different capabilities might be able to lower the overall cost closer to the DOE target. This study looks at how such a combination can be implemented in vehicle simulation models and compares the vehicle manufacturing and operating costs to a baseline BEV 300. Preliminary analysis shows an opportunity to modestly reduce BEV 300 energy storage system cost by about 8% using a battery pack that combines an energy and power battery. The baseline vehicle considered in the study uses a single battery sized to meet both the power and energy requirements of a BEV 300.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective Annual Use and Charging Frequency for Four Different Plug-in Powertrains

2013-04-08
2013-01-0494
Vehicles with electrified powertrains, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEV (PHEVs), and AEVs (all-electric vehicles using grid-supplied battery energy exclusively), are potentially marketable because of low operating costs, but each comes with a significant initial cost penalty in comparison to a conventional vehicle (CV) powered by an internal combustion engine. Accordingly, a high rate of utilization is necessary for cost effectiveness. This paper examines the projected future (2020) cost effectiveness of several alternative powertrains within a standard compact sedan glider: an AEV and a set of selected input-split and output-split HEV and PHEV powertrains with various battery power and energy storage capabilities. Vehicle performance and consumption rates of fuel and electricity were estimated using vehicle simulations, and vehicle prices were estimated using cost models.
Journal Article

Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1282
When comparing the potential of advanced versus conventional powertrains, a traditional approach is to hold glider design constant and simulate “comparable performance” to a conventional vehicle (CV). However, manufacturers have developed hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and all-electric vehicle (EV) powertrains in gliders designed to synergistically enhance fuel saving benefits of such powertrains by further reducing road load and engine output power (or continuous power for the EV) where no conventional powertrain option is provided. In the U.S. marketplace, there are now several examples of both hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles using gliders common to top selling CVs and a few using low load gliders to further reduce fuel consumption.
Journal Article

PHEV Energy Management Strategies at Cold Temperatures with Battery Temperature Rise and Engine Efficiency Improvement Considerations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0872
Limited battery power and poor engine efficiency at cold temperature results in low plug in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) fuel economy and high emissions. Quick rise of battery temperature is not only important to mitigate lithium plating and thus preserve battery life, but also to increase the battery power limits so as to fully achieve fuel economy savings expected from a PHEV. Likewise, it is also important to raise the engine temperature so as to improve engine efficiency (therefore vehicle fuel economy) and to reduce emissions. One method of increasing the temperature of either component is to maximize their usage at cold temperatures thus increasing cumulative heat generating losses. Since both components supply energy to meet road load demand, maximizing the usage of one component would necessarily mean low usage and slow temperature rise of the other component. Thus, a natural trade-off exists between battery and engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

Using Modeling and Simulation to Support Future Medium and Heavy Duty Regulations

2011-01-19
2011-26-0048
Other than in Japan, medium and heavy duty vehicles (MHDVs) are not regulated despite accounting for a significant portion of the fuel consumed (about 26% in the US in 2008). Government agencies worldwide are currently evaluating options to address that issue. Due to the large number of vehicle applications, some of them being “one of a kind”, vehicle modelling and simulation offers an attractive solution to medium and heavy duty regulations. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of vehicle simulation to support regulations.
Technical Paper

Assessing and Modeling Direct Hydrogen and Gasoline Reforming Fuel Cell Vehicles and Their Cold-Start Performance

2003-06-23
2003-01-2252
This paper analyzes fuel economy benefits of direct hydrogen and gasoline reformer fuel cell vehicles, with special focus on cold-start impacts on these fuel cell based vehicles. Comparing several existing influential studies reveals that the most probable estimates from these studies differ greatly on the implied benefits of both types of fuel cell vehicles at the tank-to-wheel level (vehicle-powertrain efficiency and/or specific power), leading to great uncertainties in estimating well-to-wheel fuel energy and/or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials. This paper first addresses methodological issues to influence the outcome of these analyses. With one exception, we find that these studies consistently ignore cold-start and warm-up issues, which play important roles in determining both energy penalties and start-up time of fuel cell vehicles. To better understand cold-start and warm-up behavior, this paper examines approaches and results based on two available U.S.
Technical Paper

Assessing Tank-to-Wheel Efficiencies of Advanced Technology Vehicles

2003-03-03
2003-01-0412
This paper analyzes four recent major studies carried out by MIT, a GM-led team, Directed Technologies, Inc., and A. D. Little, Inc. to assess advanced technology vehicles. These analyses appear to differ greatly concerning their perception of the energy benefits of advanced technology vehicles, leading to great uncertainties in estimating full-fuel-cycle (or “well-to-wheel”) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials and/or fuel feedstock requirements per mile of service. Advanced vehicles include, but are not limited to, advanced gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) ICEs, and various kinds of fuel-cell based vehicles (FCVs), such as direct hydrogen FCVs and gasoline or methanol fuel-based FCVs.
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