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Technical Paper

Model-Based Fuel Economy Technology Assessment

Many leading companies in the automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts into developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the fuel economy benefit of an individual technology in specific systems and components. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, estimating the impact without building and testing an actual vehicle becomes very complex, because the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, a projection of fuel efficiency benefits from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineer’s insight since it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations.
Technical Paper

Detailed Morphological Properties of Nanoparticles from Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Combustion of Ethanol Blends

Detailed properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of size, morphology, and nanostructures, as gasoline and its ethanol blend E20 were used as a fuel. PM emissions were sampled from a 0.55L single-cylinder GDI engine by means of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size measurements and a self-designed thermophoretic sampling device for the subsequent analyses of size, morphology and nanostructures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle sizes were evaluated with variations of air-fuel equivalence ratio and fuel injection timing. The most important result from the SMPS measurements was that the number of nucleation-mode nanoparticles (particularly those smaller than 10 - 15 nm) increased significantly as the fuel injection timing was advanced to the end-of-injection angle of 310° bTDC.
Technical Paper

Development of a 3-D Model for Analyzing the Effects of Channel Geometry on Filtration Characteristics in Particulate Filter System

A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been developed to predict flow dynamics and pressure drop characteristics in geometry-modified filters in which the normalized distance of the outlet channel plugs from the inlet has been varied at 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75. In clean filter simulations, the pressure drop in geometry-modified filters showed higher values than for conventional filters because of the significant change in the pressure field formed inside the channel that determines the amount of flow entering the modified channel. This flow through the modified channel depends on plug position initially but has a maximum limit when pressure difference and geometrical change are compromised. For soot loading simulations, a Lagrangian multiphase flow model was used to interpret the hydrodynamics of particle-laden flow with realistic inputs.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and Sizes in Low-Temperature Combustion with Biofuels

Detailed characteristics of morphology, nanostructures, and sizes were analyzed for particulate matter (PM) emissions from low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes of a single-cylinder, light-duty diesel engine. The LTC engines have been widely studied in an effort to achieve high combustion efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Recent reports indicate that the number of nucleation mode particles increased in a broad engine operating range, which implies a negative impact on future PM emissions regulations in terms of the nanoparticle number. However, the size measurement of solid carbon particles by commercial instruments is indeed controversial due to the contribution of volatile organics to small nanoparticles. In this work, an LTC engine was operated with various biofuel blends, such as blends (B20) of soy bean oil (soy methyl ester, SME20) and palm oil (palm methyl ester, PME20), as well as an ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Parametric Examination of Filtration Processes in Diesel Particulate Filter Membranes with Channel Structure Modification

The limited spatial area in conventional diesel particulate filter (DPF) systems requires frequent regenerations to remove collected particulate matter (PM) emissions, consequently resulting in higher energy consumption and potential material failure. Due to the complex geometry and difficulty in access to the internal structure of diesel particulate filters, in addition, many important characteristics in filtration processes remain unknown. In this work, therefore, the geometry of DPF membrane channels was modified basically to increase the filtration areas, and their filtration characteristics were evaluated in terms of pressure drop across the DPF membranes, effects of soot loading on pressure drop, and qualitative soot mass distribution in the membrane channels. In this evaluation, an analytical model was developed for pressure drop, which allowed a parametric study with those modified membranes.
Technical Paper

Morphological Examination of Nano-Particles Derived from Combustion of Cerium Fuel-Borne Catalyst Doped with Diesel Fuel

This experimental work focuses on defining the detailed morphology of secondary emission products derived from the combustion of cerium (Ce) fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) doped with diesel fuel. Cerium is often used to promote the oxidation of diesel particulates collected in diesel aftertreatment systems, such as diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However, it is suspected that the secondary products could be emitted from the vehicle tailpipe without being effectively filtered by the aftertreatment systems. In this work, these secondary emissions were identified by means of a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and their properties were examined in terms of morphology and chemistry. In preparation for fuel doping, a cerium-based aliphatic organic compound solution was mixed with a low-sulfur (110 ppm) diesel fuel at 50 ppm in terms of weight concentration.
Technical Paper

Fuel Property Impacts on Diesel Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and NOx Emissions

Detailed diesel particulates morphology, nanostructures, fractal geometry, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were analyzed for five different test fuels in a 1.7-L, common-rail direct-injection diesel engine. The accurately formulated fuels permit the effects of sulfur, paraffins, aromatics, and naphthene concentrations to be determined. A novel thermophoretic sampling technique was used to collect particulates immediately after the exhaust valves. The morphology and nanostructures of particulate samples were examined, imaged with a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and quantitatively analyzed with customized digital image processing/data acquisition systems. The results show that the particle sizes and the total mass of particulate matter (PM) emissions correlate most strongly with the fuels' aromatics and sulfur content.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nano-particulate Production From Low Temperature Combustion

This paper describes the initial experiments and computational simulations aimed to measure and quantify the level of nano-sized particulate production from combustion in low temperature combustion (LTC). This work measures nano-sized particles in a laminar ethylene flame both by the use of small-angle x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source and through a technique called thermophoretic sampling. Future experiments will perform similar measurements in a Rapid Compression Machine under conditions typical for HCCI engines. The simulation work involves the use of coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Chemistry Kinetics codes to predict the fuel/air mixture composition and temperature distribution in the combustion region and directly complements the experimental work. The results show that nano-particles are created under rich, premixed conditions, even with low temperature reactions (T<2000K).