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Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Particulate Morphology for a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0195
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a commonly used technique for the reduction of Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines. However, it is generally known that the use of EGR will cause an increase in emissions of particulate matter (PM). The effects of EGR operating mode on particulate morphology were investigated for a 1.7-liter light-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a turbocharged and inter-cooled air induction system, a common-rail direct fuel injection system, and an EGR system. A rapid prototyping electronic control system (RPECS) was developed to operate this engine at various EGR rates under different conditions (i.e. constant boost pressure, constant oxygen-to-fuel ratio (OFR)). A unique thermophoretic sampling system was employed to collect particulates directly from exhaust manifold after exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust System Components on Particulate Morphology in a Light-duty Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0184
The detailed morphological properties of diesel particulate matter were analyzed along the exhaust system at various engine operating conditions (in a range of 1000 - 2500 rpm and 10 - 75 % loads of maximum torques). A 1.7-L turbocharged light-duty diesel engine was powered with California low-sulfur diesel fuel injected by a common-rail injection system, of which particulate emissions were controlled by an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and two oxidation catalysts. A unique thermophoretic sampling system first developed for internal combustion engine research, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and a customized image processing/data acquisition system were key instruments that were used for the collection of particulate matter, subsequent imaging of particle morphology, and detailed analysis of particle dimensions and fractal geometry, respectively.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nano-particulate Production From Low Temperature Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0128
This paper describes the initial experiments and computational simulations aimed to measure and quantify the level of nano-sized particulate production from combustion in low temperature combustion (LTC). This work measures nano-sized particles in a laminar ethylene flame both by the use of small-angle x-ray scattering at the Advanced Photon Source and through a technique called thermophoretic sampling. Future experiments will perform similar measurements in a Rapid Compression Machine under conditions typical for HCCI engines. The simulation work involves the use of coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Chemistry Kinetics codes to predict the fuel/air mixture composition and temperature distribution in the combustion region and directly complements the experimental work. The results show that nano-particles are created under rich, premixed conditions, even with low temperature reactions (T<2000K).
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Particulate Morphology, Microstructures, and Fractal Geometry for ael Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor

2004-10-25
2004-01-3044
The particulate matter (PM) produced from a diesel engine-simulating combustor was characterized in its morphology, microstructure, and fractal geometry by using a unique thermophoretic sampling and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) system. These results revealed that diesel PM produced from the laboratory-scale burner showed similar morphological characteristics to the particulates produced from diesel engines. The flame air/fuel ratio and the particulate temperature history have significant influences on both particle size and fractal geometry. The primary particle sizes were measured to be 14.7 nm and 14.8 nm under stoichiometric and fuel-rich flame conditions, respectively. These primary particle sizes are smaller than those produced from diesel engines. The radii of gyration for the aggregate particles were 83.8 nm and 47.5 nm under these two flame conditions.
Technical Paper

Evolution in Size and Morphology of Diesel Particulates Along the Exhaust System

2004-06-08
2004-01-1981
The physical and morphological properties of the particulate matter emitted from a 1.7-liter light-duty diesel engine were characterized by observing its evolution in size and fractal geometry along the exhaust system. A common-rail direct-injection diesel engine, the exhaust system of which was equipped with a turbocharger, EGR, and two oxidation catalysts, was powered with a California low-sulfur diesel fuel at various engine-operating conditions. A unique thermophoretic sampling system, a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), and customized image processing/data acquisition systems were key instruments that were used for the collection of particulate matter, subsequent imaging of particle morphology, and detailed analysis of particle dimensions and fractal geometry, respectively. The measurements were carried out at four different positions along the exhaust pipe.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

2001-09-24
2001-01-3572
A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
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