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Technical Paper

Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for NOx Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen

2016-09-27
2016-01-8082
The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics for Combustion Metrics in Natural Gas Fuelled Reciprocating Engines

2011-01-19
2011-26-0007
Two diagnostics were developed that are particularly suitable for use with natural gas-fuelled reciprocating engines that are used for power generation applications. The first diagnostic relates flame chemiluminescence to thermodynamic metrics relevant to engine combustion - Heat Release Rate (HRR) and in-cylinder bulk gas temperature. Studies were conducted in a single-cylinder natural gas-fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Crank-angle-resolved spectra (266 to 795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO₂* chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6 - 1.0) and by varying the Exhaust Gas Recirculation rate.
Technical Paper

An Overview of ARES Research

2011-01-19
2011-26-0085
With an intention to improve the performance of reciprocating engines used for distributed generation US-Dept. of Energy has launched ARES program. Under this program, the performance targets for these natural gas-fuelled stationary engines are ≻ 50% efficiency and NOx emissions ≺ 0.1 g/bhp-hr by 2013. This paper presents two technologies developed under this program. Lean-burn operation is very popular with engine manufacturers as it offers simultaneous low-NOx emissions and high engine efficiencies, while not requiring the use of any aftertreatment devices. Though engines operating on lean-burn operation are capable of better performance, they are currently limited by the inability to sustain reliable ignition under lean conditions. Addressing such an issue, research has evaluated the use of laser ignition as an alternative to the conventional Capacitance Discharge Ignition (CDI).
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