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Technical Paper

Model Validation of the Chevrolet Volt 2016

Validation of a vehicle simulation model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016 was conducted. The Chevrolet Volt 2016 is equipped with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system operates in five modes, including two electric vehicle modes and three extended-range modes. Model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. First, the components of the vehicle, such as the engine, motor, battery, wheels, and chassis, were modeled, including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, engine efficiency changes dependent on the coolant temperature, or chassis heating or air-conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature, were applied.
Technical Paper

Impact of Advanced Engine and Powertrain Technologies on Engine Operation and Fuel Consumption for Future Vehicles

Near-term advances in spark ignition (SI) engine technology (e.g., variable value lift [VVL], gasoline direct injection [GDI], cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of delivering significant fuel savings for vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher (8-speed, 9-speed) gear numbers, higher spans, and a focus on downspeeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual-clutch transmissions, which exhibit higher efficiency in lower gears, than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light-duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development requiring low investment and delivering immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (micro hybrids or idle engine stop technology) technology in vehicles today.
Technical Paper

Advanced Automatic Transmission Model Validation Using Dynamometer Test Data

As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
Journal Article

Validating Volt PHEV Model with Dynamometer Test Data Using Autonomie

The first commercially available Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in December 2010. The Volt's powertrain architecture provides four modes of operation, including two that are unique and maximize the Volt's efficiency and performance. The electric transaxle has been specially designed to enable patented operating modes both to improve the electric driving range when operating as a battery electric vehicle and to reduce fuel consumption when extending the range by operating with an internal combustion engine (ICE). However, details on the vehicle control strategy are not widely available because the supervisory control algorithm is proprietary. Since it is not possible to analyze the control without vehicle test data obtained from a well-designed Design-of-Experiment (DoE), a highly instrumented GM Volt, including thermal sensors, was tested at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF).
Technical Paper

Instantaneously Optimized Controller for a Multimode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A multimode transmission combines several power-split modes and possibly several fixed gear modes, thanks to complex arrangements of planetary gearsets, clutches and electric motors. Coupled to a battery, it can be used in a highly flexible hybrid configuration, which is especially practical for larger cars. The Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid is the first light-duty vehicle featuring such a system. This paper introduces the use of a high-level vehicle controller based on instantaneous optimization to select the most appropriate mode for minimizing fuel consumption under a broad range of vehicle operating conditions. The control uses partial optimization: the engine ON/OFF and the battery power demand regulating the battery state-of-charge are decided by a rule-based logic; the transmission mode as well as the operating points are chosen by an instantaneous optimization module that aims at minimizing the fuel consumption at each time step.
Technical Paper

Tahoe HEV Model Development in PSAT

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, lead activities in vehicle dynamometer and fleet testing as well as in modeling activities. By using Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF), the General Motors (GM) Tahoe 2-mode was instrumented and tested in the 4-wheel-drive test facility. Measurements included both sensors and controller area network (CAN) messages. In this paper, we describe the vehicle instrumentation as well as the test results. On the basis of the analysis performed, we discuss the vehicle model developed in Argonne’s vehicle simulation tool, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), and its comparison with test data. Finally, on-road vehicle data, performed by INL, is discussed and compared with the dynamometer results.