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Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Membrane-Based Nitrogen-Enriched Air for NOx Reduction in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

The effects of nitrogen-enriched air, supplied by an air separation membrane, on NOx emissions from a 1.9-L turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine were investigated. To enrich combustion air with more nitrogen, prototype air separation membranes were installed between the after-cooler and intake manifold without any additional controls. The effects of nitrogen-enriched combustion air on NOx emissions were compared with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). At sufficient boost pressures (>50 kPag), nitrogen-enriched air from the membrane provided intake oxygen levels that were similar to those of EGR. Compared with EGR, nitrogen-enriched air provided 10-15% NOx reductions during medium to high engine loads and speeds. At part loads, when turbocharger boost pressure was low, the air separation membrane was not effective in enriching air with nitrogen. As a result, NOx reduction was lower, but it was 15-25% better than when EGR was not used.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from a Vehicle with a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

Particulate and gaseous emissions from a Mitsubishi Legnum GDI™ wagon were measured for FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 cycles. The vehicle has a 1.8-L spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Such an engine is considered a potential alternative to the compression-ignition direct-injection engine for the PNGV program. Both engine-out and tailpipe emissions were measured. The fuels used were Phase-2 reformulated gasoline and Indolene. In addition to the emissions, exhaust oxygen content and exhaust-gas temperature at the converter inlet were measured. Results show that the particulate emissions are measurable and are significantly affected by the type of fuel used and the presence of an oxidation catalyst. Whether the vehicle can meet the PNGV goal of 0.01 g/mi for particulates depends on the type of fuel used. Both NMHC and NOx emissions exceed the PNGV goals of 0.125 g/mi and 0.2 g/mi, respectively. Meeting the NOx goal will be especially challenging.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions of a Vehicle with a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

Their high fuel economy is making light-duty vehicles with spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines attractive. However, the implications for exhaust emissions and the effects of fuel quality on emissions are not clear for this type of engine. A Mitsubishi Legnum with a 1.8-L GDI™ engine was tested on federal test procedure (FTP) and highway fuel economy cycles. The results were compared with those for a production Dodge Neon vehicle with a 2.0-L port fuel-injection (PFI) engine. The Mitsubishi was tested with Indolene, Amoco Premium Ultimate, and a low-sulfur gasoline. The Neon was tested only with Indolene. Both engine-out and tailpipe emissions were measured. Second-by-second emissions and hydrocarbon speciation were also evaluated. The SIDI engine provided up to 24% better fuel economy than the PFI engine on the highway cycle. Tailpipe emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the SIDI vehicle using low-sulfur fuel were 40% less than those when using Indolene.