Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 13 of 13
Technical Paper

Exploration of Cavitation-Suppressing Orifice Designs for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Operating with Straight-Run Gasoline

2019-09-09
2019-24-0126
The occurrence of cavitation inside injectors is generally undesirable since it can cause material erosion and result in deviations from the expected injector performance. Previous numerical work employing an injector geometry measured with x-ray diagnostics and operating with a high-volatility straight-run gasoline (SRG) has shown that: (1) most of the cavitation is generally observed at low needle lifts, (2) needle motion is responsible for asymmetric structures in the internal flow as well as large pressure and velocity gradients that trigger phase transition at the orifice inlets, and (3) cavitation affects the injector discharge coefficient and distribution of injected fuel. To explore the potential for material damage within the injector orifices due to cavitation cloud collapse, the cavitation-induced erosion risk assessment (CIERA) tool has been applied for the first time to the realistic geometry of a heavy-duty injector using the CONVERGE software.
Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Stratification Effects on Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) Combustion and Emissions Behaviors

2019-04-02
2019-01-1145
Fuel stratification effects on the combustion and emissions behaviors for partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) combustion of a high reactivity gasoline (research octane number of 80) was investigated using the third generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen3 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The PPCI combustion mode was achieved through a double injection strategy. The extent of in-cylinder fuel stratification was tailored by varying the start of second fuel injection timing (SOIsecond) while the first fuel injection event was held constant and occurred during the intake stroke. Based on the experimental results, three combustion characteristic zones were identified in terms of the SOIsecond - CA50 (crank angle at 50% cumulative heat release) relationship: (I) no response zone (HCCI-like combustion); (II) negative CA50 slope zone: (early PPCI mode); and (III) positive CA50 slope zone (late PPCI mode).
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Shot-to-Shot In-Nozzle Flow Variations in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Injector Using Real Nozzle Geometry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0303
Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines (ICEs) arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
Journal Article

A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) Approach for Rapid Optimization Using High-Performance Computing

2018-04-03
2018-01-0190
A Machine Learning-Genetic Algorithm (ML-GA) approach was developed to virtually discover optimum designs using training data generated from multi-dimensional simulations. Machine learning (ML) presents a pathway to transform complex physical processes that occur in a combustion engine into compact informational processes. In the present work, a total of over 2000 sector-mesh computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a heavy-duty engine were performed. These were run concurrently on a supercomputer to reduce overall turnaround time. The engine being optimized was run on a low-octane (RON70) gasoline fuel under partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. A total of nine input parameters were varied, and the CFD simulation cases were generated by randomly sampling points from this nine-dimensional input space. These input parameters included fuel injection strategy, injector design, and various in-cylinder flow and thermodynamic conditions at intake valve closure (IVC).
Technical Paper

Comparison of In-Nozzle Flow Characteristics of Naphtha and N-Dodecane Fuels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0853
It is well known that in-nozzle flow behavior can significantly influence the near-nozzle spray formation and mixing that in turn affect engine performance and emissions. This in-nozzle flow behavior can, in turn, be significantly influenced by fuel properties. The goal of this study is to characterize the behavior of two different fuels, namely, a straight-run naphtha that has an anti-knock index of 58 (denoted as “Full-Range Naphtha”) and n-dodecane, in a simulated multi-hole common-rail diesel fuel injector. Simulations were carried out using a fully compressible multi-phase flow representation based on the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Our previous studies have shown that the characteristics of internal and near-nozzle flow are strongly related to needle motion in both the along- and off-axis directions.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0578
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0550
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Journal Article

A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0734
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
Journal Article

Assessing the Importance of Radiative Heat Transfer for ECN Spray A Using the Transported PDF Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0857
The importance of radiative heat transfer on the combustion and soot formation characteristics under nominal ECN Spray A conditions has been studied numerically. The liquid n-dodecane fuel is injected with 1500 bar fuel pressure into the constant volume chamber at different ambient conditions. Radiation from both gas-phase as well as soot particles has been included and assumed as gray. Three different solvers for the radiative transfer equation have been employed: the discrete ordinate method, the spherical-harmonics method and the optically thin assumption. The radiation models have been coupled with the transported probability density function method for turbulent reactive flows and soot, where unresolved turbulent fluctuations in temperature and composition are included and therefore capturing turbulence-chemistry-soot-radiation interactions. Results show that the gas-phase (mostly CO2 ad H2O species) has a higher contribution to the net radiation heat transfer compared to soot.
Technical Paper

Global Sensitivity Analysis of a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine Simulation with Multiple Targets on an IBM Blue Gene/Q Supercomputer

2016-04-05
2016-01-0602
In internal combustion engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, uncertainties arise from various sources, such as estimates of model parameters, experimental boundary conditions, estimates of chemical kinetic rates, etc. These uncertainties propagate through the model and may result in discrepancies compared to experimental measurements. The relative importance of the various sources of uncertainty can be quantified by performing a sensitivity analysis. In this work, global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was applied to engine CFD simulations of a low-temperature combustion concept called gasoline compression ignition, to understand the influence of experimental measurement uncertainties from various sources on specific targets of interest-spray penetration, ignition timing, combustion phasing, combustion duration, and emissions. The sensitivity of these targets was evaluated with respect to imposed uncertainties in experimental boundary conditions and fuel properties.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

2016-04-05
2016-01-0585
The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Spray Flame under Diesel Engine Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1844
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence model has been used extensively for diesel engine simulations due to its computational efficiency and is expected to remain the workhorse computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for industry in the near future. Alternatively, large eddy simulations (LES) can potentially deal with complex flows and cover a large disparity of turbulence length scales, which makes this technique more and more attractive in the engine community. An n-dodecane spray flame (Spray A from Engine Combustion Network) was simulated using a dynamic structure LES model to understand the transient behavior of this turbulent flame. The liquid spray was treated with a traditional Lagrangian method and the gas-phase reaction was closed using a delta probability density function (PDF) combustion model. A 103-species skeletal mechanism was used for n-dodecane chemical kinetic model.
X