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Technical Paper

Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry. The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems.
Technical Paper

Multi-dimensional Modeling of Non-equilibrium Plasma for Automotive Applications

While spark-ignition (SI) engine technology is aggressively moving towards challenging (dilute and boosted) combustion regimes, advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma are being considered by the automotive industry as a potential replacement for the conventional spark-plug technology. However, there are currently no models that can describe the low-temperature plasma (LTP) ignition process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are typically used in the multi-dimensional engine modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the plasma characteristics. A key challenge is also represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for NOx Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen

The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
Journal Article

Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions performance of Multizone Stratified Compression Ignition Using Different Octane Fuels

Advanced combustion systems that simultaneously address PM and NOx while retaining the high efficiency of modern diesel engines, are being developed around the globe. One of the most difficult problems in the area of advanced combustion technology development is the control of combustion initiation and retaining power density. During the past several years, significant progress has been accomplished in reducing emissions of NOx and PM through strategies such as LTC/HCCI/PCCI/PPCI and other advanced combustion processes; however control of ignition and improving power density has suffered to some degree - advanced combustion engines tend to be limited to the 10 bar BMEP range and under. Experimental investigations have been carried out on a light-duty DI multi-cylinder diesel automotive engine. The engine is operated in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode using 93 RON (Research Octane Number) and 74 RON fuel.
Technical Paper

Efficiency and Emissions Potential of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles

This paper reviews and summarizes recent developments in hydrogen (H2) powered engine and vehicle research. Following an overview of mixture formation strategies, general trade-offs when operating engines on hydrogen are analyzed and highlights regarding accomplishments in efficiency improvement and emissions reduction are presented. These include estimates of efficiency potential of direct-injection hydrogen engines based on single-cylinder research engine data, fuel economy and emissions results of hydrogen powered passenger cars and pickup trucks as well as the impact and potential of hydrogen/methane blended operation.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Hydrogen Fueled Vehicles Compared to Conventional Vehicles from 2010 to 2045

Fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and there is limited demand for hydrogen at present, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. Several timeframes are considered: 2010, 2015, 2030, and 2045. To address the technology status uncertainty, a triangular distribution approach was implemented for each component technology. The fuel consumption and cost of five powertrain configurations will be discussed and compared with the conventional counterpart.
Technical Paper

Tahoe HEV Model Development in PSAT

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, lead activities in vehicle dynamometer and fleet testing as well as in modeling activities. By using Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF), the General Motors (GM) Tahoe 2-mode was instrumented and tested in the 4-wheel-drive test facility. Measurements included both sensors and controller area network (CAN) messages. In this paper, we describe the vehicle instrumentation as well as the test results. On the basis of the analysis performed, we discuss the vehicle model developed in Argonne’s vehicle simulation tool, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), and its comparison with test data. Finally, on-road vehicle data, performed by INL, is discussed and compared with the dynamometer results.
Technical Paper

Prospects on Fuel Economy Improvements for Hydrogen Powered Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are the subject of extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive and the demand for hydrogen is therefore limited, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, some original equipment manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive industry have been working on a hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite its lower cost, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers, for a similar amount of onboard hydrogen, a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. This paper compares the fuel economy potential of hydrogen-fueled vehicles to their conventional gasoline counterparts. To take uncertainties into account, the current and future status of both technologies were considered.
Journal Article

Fabrication and Characterization of Micro-Orifices for Diesel Fuel Injectors

Stringent emission standards are driving the development of diesel-fuel injection concepts to mitigate in-cylinder formation of particulates. While research has demonstrated significant reduction in particulate formation using micro-orifice technology, implementation requires development of industrial processes to fabricate micro-orifices with diameters as low as 50 μm and with large length-to-diameter ratios. This paper reviews the different processes being pursued to fabricate micro-orifices and the advanced techniques applied to characterize the performance of micro-orifices. The latter include the use of phase-contrast x-ray imaging of electroless nickel-plated micro-orifices and laser imaging of fuel sprays at elevated pressures. The experimental results demonstrate an industrially viable process to create small uniform orifices that improve spray formation for fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy: Comparison between EV and Charge-Depleting Options

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has invested considerable research and development (R&D) effort into Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) technology because of the potential fuel displacement offered by the technology. DOE's PHEV R&D Plan [1], which is driven by the desire to reduce dependence on foreign oil by diversifying the fuel sources of automobiles, describes the various activities required to achieve the goals. The U.S. DOE will use Argonne's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to guide its analysis activities, stating, “Argonne's Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) will be used to design and evaluate a series of PHEVs with various ‘primary electric’ ranges, considering all-electric and charge-depleting strategies.” PSAT was used to simulate three possible charge-depleting (CD) PHEV control strategies for a power split hybrid. Trip distance was factored into the CD strategies before the cycle was started.
Technical Paper

Mass Balance and Composition Analysis of Shredder Residue

The process of shredding end-of-life vehicles to recover metals results in a byproduct commonly referred to as shredder residue. The four and a half million metric tons of shredder residue produced annually in the United States is presently land filled. To meet the challenges of automotive materials recycling, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting research at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the American Plastics Council. This paper presents the results of a study that was conducted by Argonne to determine variations in the composition of shredder residue from different shredders. Over 90 metric tons of shredder residues were processed through the Argonne pilot plant. The contents of the various separated streams were quantitatively analyzed to determine their composition and to identify materials that should be targeted for recovery.
Technical Paper

Impacts of Combining Hydrogen ICE with Fuel Cell System Using PSAT

Because of their high efficiency and low emission potential, fuel cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. However, several major barriers have to be overcome to enable a hydrogen economy. Because fuel cell vehicles remain expensive, very few fueling stations are being built. To try to accelerate the development of a hydrogen economy, the automotive manufacturers developed a hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) as an intermediate step. Despite being cheaper, the hydrogen-fueled ICE offers a lower driving range because of its lower efficiency. The current study evaluates the impact of combining a hydrogen-fueled ICE with a fuel cell to maximize fuel economy while minimizing the cost and amount of onboard fuel needed to maintain an acceptable driving range.
Technical Paper

Energy Storage Requirements for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. As the entire powertrain system needs to be optimized, the requirements of each component to achieve FreedomCAR goals need to be determined. With the collaboration of FreedomCAR fuel cell, energy storage, and vehicle Technical Teams, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) used several modeling tools to define the energy storage requirements for fuel cell vehicles. For example, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), which is a transient vehicle simulation software, was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool). This paper describes the impact of degree of hybridization, control strategy, and energy storage technology on energy storage requirements for a fuel cell SUV vehicle platform.
Technical Paper

Comparing Apples to Apples: Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Current ICE and Fuel Cell Vehicle Technologies

Because of their high efficiency and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles are undergoing extensive research and development. When considering the introduction of advanced vehicles, a complete well-to-wheel evaluation must be performed to determine the potential impact of a technology on carbon dioxide and Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were used to evaluate the impact of advanced powertrain configurations. The Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) transient vehicle simulation software was used with a variety of fuel cell system models derived from the General Computational Toolkit (GCtool) for pump-to-wheel (PTW) analysis, and GREET (Green house gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was used for well-to-pump (WTP) analysis. This paper compares advanced propulsion technologies on a well-to-wheel energy basis by using current technology for conventional, hybrid and fuel cell technologies.
Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced SUV Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are currently undergoing extensive research and development because of their potential for high efficiency and low emissions. A complete well-to-wheels evaluation is helpful when considering the introduction of advanced vehicles that could use a new fuel, such as hydrogen. Several modeling tools developed by Argonne National Laboratory were used to evaluate the impact of several new vehicle configurations. A transient vehicle simulation software code, PSAT (Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit), was used with a transient fuel cell model derived from GCTool (General Computational Toolkit); and GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation) was employed in estimating well-to-tank performances. This paper compares the well-to-wheels impacts of several advanced SUVs, including conventional, parallel and series hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

US National Laboratory R&D Programs in Support of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries

The successful commercialization of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) can provide significant benefits by reducing the United States' growing dependence on petroleum fuels for transportation; decreasing polluting and greenhouse gas emissions; and facilitating a long-term transition to sustainable renewable energy sources. Recognizing these benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports an active program of long-range R&D to develop electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies and to accelerate their commercialization. The DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) supports several innovative R&D programs, conducted in partnership with DOE's national laboratories, industry, other government agencies, universities, and small businesses. The Office has two key R&D cooperative agreements with the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop high-energy batteries for EVs and high-power batteries for HEVs.
Technical Paper

Breaking Down Technology Barriers for Advanced Vehicles: The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT), in partnership with industry, is developing transportation technologies that will improve the energy efficiency of our transportation system. Most OAAT programs are focused exclusively on technology development. However, the twin goals of developing innovative technologies and transferring them to industry led OAAT to realize the growing need for people trained in non-traditional, emerging technologies. The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program combines graduate-level education with technology development and transfer by training a new generation of automotive engineers in critical multi-disciplinary technologies, by fostering cooperative research in those technologies, and by transferring those technologies directly to industrial organizations.
Technical Paper

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology Program (CARAT): Accelerating the Commercialization of Innovative Technology

The Cooperative Automotive Research for Advanced Technology (CARAT) program is designed to accelerate the commercialization of innovative technologies that will overcome barriers to achieving the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Program. Aimed at harnessing the creativity and capabilities of American small businesses and colleges and universities, this unique technology R&D program seeks to develop and bring advanced technologies into use in production vehicles at a faster rate. CARAT's focus is developing and commercializing technology that overcomes key technical barriers preventing the production of vehicles with ultra-high fuel efficiency. CARAT begins with technologies that already have a firm technical basis and, through a unique three-stage process, ends with fully validated technologies ready for mass production. The program is open to all U.S. entrepreneurs and small businesses, colleges, and universities.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle Costs to Consumers

A methodology for evaluating life cycle cost of electric vehicles (EVs) to their buyers is presented. The methodology is based on an analysis of conventional vehicle costs, costs of drivetrain and auxiliary components unique to EVs, and battery costs. The conventional vehicle's costs are allocated to such subsystems as body, chassis, and powertrain. In electric vehicles, an electric drive is substituted for the conventional powertrain. The current status of the electric drive components and battery costs is evaluated. Battery costs are estimated by evaluating the material requirements and production costs at different production levels; battery costs are also collected from other sources. Costs of auxiliary components, such as those for heating and cooling the passenger compartment, are also estimated. Here, the methodology is applied to two vehicle types: subcompact car and minivan.